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The eleventh-century Muslim world was a great civilization while Europe lay slumbering in the Dark Ages. Slowly, inevitably, Europe and Islam came together, through trade and war, crusade and diplomacy. The ebb and flow between these two worlds for seven hundred years, illuminated here by a brilliant historian, is one of the great sagas of world history.


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The eleventh-century Muslim world was a great civilization while Europe lay slumbering in the Dark Ages. Slowly, inevitably, Europe and Islam came together, through trade and war, crusade and diplomacy. The ebb and flow between these two worlds for seven hundred years, illuminated here by a brilliant historian, is one of the great sagas of world history.

30 review for The Muslim Discovery of Europe

  1. 4 out of 5

    Ahmad Sharabiani

    The Muslim Discovery of Europe, Bernard Lewis Bernard Lewis (born 31 May 1916) is a British American historian specializing in oriental studies. He is also known as a public intellectual and political commentator. Lewis is the Cleveland E. Dodge Professor Emeritus of Near Eastern Studies at Princeton University. Lewis' expertise is in the history of Islam and the interaction between Islam and the West. He is also noted in academic circles for his works on the history of the Ottoman Empire. تاریخ ن The Muslim Discovery of Europe, Bernard Lewis Bernard Lewis (born 31 May 1916) is a British American historian specializing in oriental studies. He is also known as a public intellectual and political commentator. Lewis is the Cleveland E. Dodge Professor Emeritus of Near Eastern Studies at Princeton University. Lewis' expertise is in the history of Islam and the interaction between Islam and the West. He is also noted in academic circles for his works on the history of the Ottoman Empire. تاریخ نخستین خوانش: روز بیست و نهم ماه سپتامبر سال 1995میلادی عنوان: نخستین مسلمانان در اروپا؛ نویسنده: برنارد لوئیس؛ مترجم: محمد قائد شرفی؛ تهران، نشر مرکز، 1374، در 426ص، شابک: ایکس-964305098؛ چاپ دیگر ویراست دوم: تهران، کارنامه، 1389، در 474ص؛ شابک 9789644310805؛ موضوع: سفر مسلمانان به اروپا از نویسندگان - سده 20م فهرست: «سیری در روند غرب شناسی»؛ «درباره مولف»؛ «پیشگفتار مولف»؛ «تماس و تاثیر»؛ «نگاه مسلمانان به جهان»؛ «در باب زبان و ترجمه»؛ «ابزار ارتباط و عوامل ارتباط دهنده»؛ «دانش مسلمانان درباره مغرب زمین»؛ «دین»؛ «اقتصاد: تصورها و تماس‏ها»؛ «دولت و قضاوت»؛ «علوم و فنون»؛ «زندگی فرهنگی»؛ «احوال شخصی و امور اجتماعی»؛ «نتیجه ‏گیری»؛ «مصاحبه با برنارد لویس»؛ و در پایان نمایه کتاب در سده ی یازدهم میلادی، سرزمین‏های «اسلامی»، و «اروپایی»، آگاهی اندکی از همدیگر داشتند؛ اما به ناگزیر، و به آهستگی «اسلامیان» و اروپائیان» از راه «تجارت»، «زد و خورد»، «جنگ‏های صلیبی»، و «دیپلماسی»، به‏ همدیگر رسیدند؛ «مسلمانان» به «فرنگیان» توجه نشان دادند، و به نوشتن درباره ی آنها، و گردآوری اطلاعاتی پیرامون «زبان‏ها»، «علوم»، و «چگونگی حکومت»، «مذهب»، و «اقتصاد غرب» پرداختند؛ هرچند که این علاقمندی و توجه، در سالهایی بس دراز، در جوامع «مسلمانان» شکل گرفت؛ این کتاب به بیان شکل گیری جریان‏های ارتباطی «مسلمان و غیرمسلمانان»، که در هفتصد سال پر نشیب و فراز تاریخی، شکل گرفته می‏پردازد؛ «برنارد لویس» نویسنده ی کتاب «نخستین مسلمان در اروپا» با بهره‏ گیری از «رویداد نگاریها»، «نوشتارها»، «دفترهای یادمانهای روزانه»، «مراسلات» و «کتاب‏هایی که برای نخستین بار ترجمه شده ‏اند»، به ارائه ی چگونگی شکل گرفتن این رابطه میپردازند تاریخ بهنگام رسانی 12/04/1400هجری خورشیدی؛ ا. شربیانی

  2. 5 out of 5

    Murtaza

    In the twilight of his life Bernard Lewis unfortunately became better known for his neoconservative politics than his scholarship. That's a shame, because over the decades he did a lot of frankly invaluable work uncovering the history of the Muslim world, particularly the Ottoman realms on which he was an expert. This book is overflowing with original translations showing how Muslims viewed Europe over the years. For centuries, the continent was considered a frigid and barbaric backwater, of lit In the twilight of his life Bernard Lewis unfortunately became better known for his neoconservative politics than his scholarship. That's a shame, because over the decades he did a lot of frankly invaluable work uncovering the history of the Muslim world, particularly the Ottoman realms on which he was an expert. This book is overflowing with original translations showing how Muslims viewed Europe over the years. For centuries, the continent was considered a frigid and barbaric backwater, of little interest in comparison to the rich lands of India and China. Only later did some faint rumblings of a Renaissance among the barbarians start to emerge. By the time that Muslims realized that they were falling dangerously behind intellectually, the political power that might have protected them was also eroding. And unlike, say, the Japanese who due to their distance felt less culturally threatened by Europe and could immediately embark on a wholesale adoption of its beliefs, Muslims felt deeply conflicted and cautious about imitating a people that they had long ago superseded. The best parts of this book were the translations of Turkish and Persian diaries of Muslim travelers and intellectuals sharing their impressions of Europe. Their analyses of the French Revolution were amazing, as were many of their accounts of visiting Europe and being gawked at by incredulous crowds. There is even an account of a Muslim ambassador's friendship with a Viking princess at her court. Could one imagine such things existed? It was also somewhat funny to read the incredibly arrogant and dismissive way that Ottomans once discussed Europeans in their internal correspondences. This attitude took centuries to change. Say what you want about the author, and there is much to criticize of course, but this book is a great service.

  3. 5 out of 5

    محمد إلهامي

    برناد لويس.. مستشرق أمريكي يهودي صهيوني متعصب.. نعم عباراته فيها تزييف والالتواء ومحملة بقدر كبير من الإيحاءات السلبية.. نعم إلا أنه غزير العلم واسع المعرفة، وواحد من الخبراء العارفين بالتاريخ الإسلامي، وكتبه -برغم كل ما سبق- تظل مهمة وضرورية ونافعة وتستحق القراءة. يعيب هذا الكتاب نوع من الارتباك في الأفكار وتقسيمها، وانتثار المعلومات بغير رابط متماسك في كثير من الأحيان، وقفز على فجوات دون محاولة التفسير والتغطية أو حتى اعتراف بالنقص في المصادر والمعلومات. ومن عيوب الكتاب ترجمته التي جاءت سيئة، وبها برناد لويس.. مستشرق أمريكي يهودي صهيوني متعصب.. نعم عباراته فيها تزييف والالتواء ومحملة بقدر كبير من الإيحاءات السلبية.. نعم إلا أنه غزير العلم واسع المعرفة، وواحد من الخبراء العارفين بالتاريخ الإسلامي، وكتبه -برغم كل ما سبق- تظل مهمة وضرورية ونافعة وتستحق القراءة. يعيب هذا الكتاب نوع من الارتباك في الأفكار وتقسيمها، وانتثار المعلومات بغير رابط متماسك في كثير من الأحيان، وقفز على فجوات دون محاولة التفسير والتغطية أو حتى اعتراف بالنقص في المصادر والمعلومات. ومن عيوب الكتاب ترجمته التي جاءت سيئة، وبها أخطاء لا تخطئها العين العابرة فضلا عن العين المدققة لأن كتب برنارد لويس من الكتب التي يهتم بها المتخصصون ولا تروق للعامة بطبيعة الحال.. وقد بلغ سوء الترجمة أن جعل "الجمعات" = "الجوامع" وأنه ترجم safavids بالصفديين رغم أنها الصفويين وهو تركيب مشهور جدا على أني في النهاية أقدر كل ترجمة مهما كان مستواها لأنها تفتح آفاق العرب على الجديد، ويظل للمترجم فضل هذا النقل وإن لم يبلغ عمله قصده.

  4. 4 out of 5

    Kang

    Edward Said has long derided Bernard Lewis--which means i was inclined to like lewis. i was shocked upon reading this book at the sloppiness of the schoalrship. ch.2 is a particularly egregious example. lewis repeatedly uses phrases such as "common attitude," "in general," "in Muslim writings," "most Muslim jurists," and so forth, but he often makes these as mere assertions, w/o providing *any* references. and of the 7 endnotes to this chapter, if we exclude the 3 to the Qu'ran due to interpreti Edward Said has long derided Bernard Lewis--which means i was inclined to like lewis. i was shocked upon reading this book at the sloppiness of the schoalrship. ch.2 is a particularly egregious example. lewis repeatedly uses phrases such as "common attitude," "in general," "in Muslim writings," "most Muslim jurists," and so forth, but he often makes these as mere assertions, w/o providing *any* references. and of the 7 endnotes to this chapter, if we exclude the 3 to the Qu'ran due to interpretive difficulties which lewis blithely and irresponsibly ignores, only 1 contains a reference to a primary source, so, *contra* another reviewer on goodreads, whatever this book is (i refrain from calling it what it is b/c i want to keep my reviews at least PG-13), it is most assuredly *not* a "good collection of primary sources." that comment leaves me dumbstruck. excuse me while i have a, "Did we even read the same book?" moment.

  5. 5 out of 5

    Sagheer Afzal

    Bernard Lewis has many detractors and even though he does not have the style of flair of William Dalrymple; in this book he had done a commendable job of relaying what is written and adding to what is known. Lewis states that at the concept of Bidaaa or innovation was was responsible for the the stulification of the Muslim world in the 11th century. He writes according to a saying ascribed to the prophet whoever imitates a people becomes one of them this has taken to mean that adopting or imitat Bernard Lewis has many detractors and even though he does not have the style of flair of William Dalrymple; in this book he had done a commendable job of relaying what is written and adding to what is known. Lewis states that at the concept of Bidaaa or innovation was was responsible for the the stulification of the Muslim world in the 11th century. He writes according to a saying ascribed to the prophet whoever imitates a people becomes one of them this has taken to mean that adopting or imitating practices characteristic of the infidel amounts to itself and act of infidelity consequently a betrayal of Islam He states that the dictum and the doctrine which it expresses were frequently invoked by Muslim religious authorities to oppose and denounce anything which they saw as an imitation of Europe therefore as a compromise with unbelief. It was a powerful argument in the hands of religious Conservatives and was frequently used by them to block such westernising Innovations as technology printing and even european-style medicine. That insight alone makes reading the book worthwhile.

  6. 5 out of 5

    Pablo Flores

    I found this book extremely enlightening. It works as a reversal of the usual point of view of Western history books, which deal with Europeans meeting or clashing with the Muslims, newcomers at the world stage. It displays an impressive array of sources before the reader and it shows, with nuance and detail, how the Muslim world has viewed Europe and European affairs over time, going from disdain and (for a while justified) superiority to apprehension, fear and finally (sometimes grudging) acce I found this book extremely enlightening. It works as a reversal of the usual point of view of Western history books, which deal with Europeans meeting or clashing with the Muslims, newcomers at the world stage. It displays an impressive array of sources before the reader and it shows, with nuance and detail, how the Muslim world has viewed Europe and European affairs over time, going from disdain and (for a while justified) superiority to apprehension, fear and finally (sometimes grudging) acceptance. I did find it, at times, a bit repetitive, though I gather that the multitude of examples was necessary to bring the point home without oversimplifying a delicate subject, and a bit disorganized, as the book is not laid out chronologically (as a whole or within any of its thematic chapters). For someone without previous in-depth knowledge of the history of Islam and its interaction with Western thought, like me, it has in any case a lot of value, though I sense that others would prefer a more academic presentation, or would just consider this a starting point. I recommend this to anyone trying to get their bearings on the subject.

  7. 5 out of 5

    Rich

    Bernard Lewis takes excerpts and synopsizes dozens of individual Muslims' perceptions, lessons and realizations about Europe. Almost all of them are intriguing. Lewis also covers diplomatic contact between Islamic and European countries. The nation-to-nation contact parts of the book are the best because he explains what Europe learned from Islamic civilization and vice versa. The book ranges from Muslims' early contact with Europe to the early 19th century. It was more a collection of travel lo Bernard Lewis takes excerpts and synopsizes dozens of individual Muslims' perceptions, lessons and realizations about Europe. Almost all of them are intriguing. Lewis also covers diplomatic contact between Islamic and European countries. The nation-to-nation contact parts of the book are the best because he explains what Europe learned from Islamic civilization and vice versa. The book ranges from Muslims' early contact with Europe to the early 19th century. It was more a collection of travel logs than survey that led to an explanation of an amorphous Muslim perception of Christian civilization. Lewis now has many critics (Noam Chomsky, Edward Said, etc.) and I don't support many of the current political positions Lewis takes but I still appreciate his scholarship. He uses hundreds of primary sources for this book and does not attempt to cast any ethnic group in a negative light. I agree that he is not the most thoughtful scholar but he was not driven to write this book out of fear or disdain for Muslims.

  8. 4 out of 5

    Omar Taufik

    As the previous books I read by the author, this book is filled with interesting details of the centuries long interaction between Islam and the West. These details were arranged with great talent reflecting the great knowledge of the author in the subject and the field. The author arranges his book displaying and exploring the various aspects of interaction and mutual impact between both civilizations starting from the advance of Islam through it's historical conquests where Muslim perception of As the previous books I read by the author, this book is filled with interesting details of the centuries long interaction between Islam and the West. These details were arranged with great talent reflecting the great knowledge of the author in the subject and the field. The author arranges his book displaying and exploring the various aspects of interaction and mutual impact between both civilizations starting from the advance of Islam through it's historical conquests where Muslim perception of the need and curiosity of the West remained with no major change until the eighteenth century to then witness a more rapid change in attitude during the nineteenth century. The author ends the book with a conclusion which could actually be a comprehensive summary of the subject and question of the difference of perception between the two civilizations with regards to interest, curiosity and discovery.

  9. 5 out of 5

    Helaine

    Since I knew very little about the Muslims in Europe, this was an eye opener as to their long rule on the Iberian peninsula, trading with European nations and the art, math, science that can be attributed to them. However, in spite of the title's emphasis on Muslims, the author seemed to side step their culture, social interaction and other aspects that would have explained why Muslims responded the way they did to Europeans. The author several times reverts to their "lack of curiosity" which se Since I knew very little about the Muslims in Europe, this was an eye opener as to their long rule on the Iberian peninsula, trading with European nations and the art, math, science that can be attributed to them. However, in spite of the title's emphasis on Muslims, the author seemed to side step their culture, social interaction and other aspects that would have explained why Muslims responded the way they did to Europeans. The author several times reverts to their "lack of curiosity" which seems a short sighted approach and a European designation of Muslim interactions or approach to medical science, etc. Not sure how he comes up with that analysis.

  10. 5 out of 5

    Jrobertus

    Lewis is a renowned expert on Middle Eastern history and this book is very well researched. The West is generally ignorant of the Muslim Golden Age from, say, 800 to 1500. First Arab and then Turkish states flourished. They established powerful modern states which supported science, medicine, architecture, trade and military science. Their courts and cities were sparkling while most of Europe, and particularly northwestern Europe were Dark Age backwaters. Lewis tries to look from their perspecti Lewis is a renowned expert on Middle Eastern history and this book is very well researched. The West is generally ignorant of the Muslim Golden Age from, say, 800 to 1500. First Arab and then Turkish states flourished. They established powerful modern states which supported science, medicine, architecture, trade and military science. Their courts and cities were sparkling while most of Europe, and particularly northwestern Europe were Dark Age backwaters. Lewis tries to look from their perspective toward Europe. He uses a lot of passages from writers of that time. There is no doubt the Muslims were keenly aware of their superior culture and they rarely even mention the barbarians. When they do it is almost always done in a derogatory manner with insulting adjectives and scorn. However, as time goes on and the West gains strength the Muslims begin to question what is going on since they felt Allah had more or less preordained that their true faith must conquer the world. This is a problem up to the present. One thing that is interesting to me is that even when they were on top of the world, their scholars lacked even an academic interest in “barbarian” cultures, like China, but especially the West. This seems a cultural difference from Europeans who from the time of Herodotus and up through Polo and Richard Burton have always been fascinated to learn about exotic places. It was interesting to read Muslim views of Western law and politics. They were horrified when they saw the use of trial by ordeal to decide cases among Christian crusaders. They were also horrified by democracy where men made laws instead of using God's revelations as they did (yeah, right). European respect for women, and the apparent power of women also astonished the Muslim writers, even though by our standards women had a rough go. Lewis tries to ask why the west was ultimately more successful in innovating but has no sure answer. He feels that the European discovery of the New World, the Renaissance and the Protestant reformation all exposed them to a more open frame of mind. The Muslim religion was so sure of its own perfection it was unable to imagine the barbarians had anything to contribute to the world. Anyway, this is an informative book but rather slow and repetitive. It is probably invaluable to scholars in the field but a more casual reader may want to speed read to get the gist of the work.

  11. 4 out of 5

    Ashley

    I had to read this book for my World Civilizations university class but I tried to keep my rating as relevant to the contents of the book rather than my lack of interest in the subject itself. This book was extremely boring. Now, I know most university books aren't incredibly fascinating but I do find aspects of history interesting. This book was just written in a way that scrambled my brain. I was literally dreading having to pick it back up and counting the hours until I'd be finished. The autho I had to read this book for my World Civilizations university class but I tried to keep my rating as relevant to the contents of the book rather than my lack of interest in the subject itself. This book was extremely boring. Now, I know most university books aren't incredibly fascinating but I do find aspects of history interesting. This book was just written in a way that scrambled my brain. I was literally dreading having to pick it back up and counting the hours until I'd be finished. The author writes in such a way, that it's extremely difficult to follow what's happening. There is one story going on, but then halfway through it skips over to something else, and then halfway through that, it picks up again with the first story. I found it very hard to keep track, and this made writing my essay problematic. I wish that there were more authors writing in a style that was more appealing to students, rather than composing a book made up from hundreds of other books and texts. Luckily, I'm finished, I'll never have to read it again. I can't say I've learned more than I've known from just a general knowledge of the Muslim culture and their experiences with Europeans. At times I felt fingers were being pointed in the direction of who was more evil, the Muslims or the Christians, but that's just how I felt.

  12. 4 out of 5

    Vincent Hernot

    This is very good, and in more ways than one. Factually, historically, it's fascinating. Scholarship-wise: ditto. Impressive also is how he manages to handle all the names etc., without completely losing us, something difficult in this case. Caveat: he states his main finding right at the beginning, i.e. that Muslims simply had no interest in, nor knowledge of, Europe/the West, they saw us as barbarians, uneducated, filthy, unhygienic, cruel and uncivilised (all of which, objectively, was rather tru This is very good, and in more ways than one. Factually, historically, it's fascinating. Scholarship-wise: ditto. Impressive also is how he manages to handle all the names etc., without completely losing us, something difficult in this case. Caveat: he states his main finding right at the beginning, i.e. that Muslims simply had no interest in, nor knowledge of, Europe/the West, they saw us as barbarians, uneducated, filthy, unhygienic, cruel and uncivilised (all of which, objectively, was rather true). So everything after that derives from that idea: each chapter addresses one particular aspect (social, historical, religious, travels, books etc), but you always know, right from the start, that the conclusion will be the same: they didn't know, didn't care, had no interest. I would have liked that picture to shine through as I read, rather than have it shone in my eyes at the start. But impressive book, and fascinatingly informative.

  13. 4 out of 5

    Philip

    Originally published in 1982, this work shines a light out of alignment with much of our understanding of the Muslim history. So, it is a worthy read but should be read as one in a group for the historiography.

  14. 5 out of 5

    E.so

    Lots of interesting information. Excerpts from primary sources are particularly enjoyable. I feel like its structure could have been a bit less disjointed though; there are very numerous time leaps between the medieval age and the late modern age in the narration.

  15. 5 out of 5

    Mark Oconnor

    Very thorough history of the Muslim view of European/Christian society from the 6th century through the Middle Ages and Crusades up to the beginning of the 19th century. I was rather surprised by how little curiosity was exhibited about the "infidels", but it explains this several times in the book as viewed through a religious worldview and prism. Got a little dry here and there, but overall informative. I wish the author had included some more material from the various diaries and writings he Very thorough history of the Muslim view of European/Christian society from the 6th century through the Middle Ages and Crusades up to the beginning of the 19th century. I was rather surprised by how little curiosity was exhibited about the "infidels", but it explains this several times in the book as viewed through a religious worldview and prism. Got a little dry here and there, but overall informative. I wish the author had included some more material from the various diaries and writings he mentions, he only gives us little snippets here and there, and it left me wanting to know more about some of the firsthand accounts that do exist from that time period.

  16. 4 out of 5

    Louai Al Roumani

    As expected from Lewis, this book provides a wealth of insightful information on a perspective that is rarely highlighted. What Lewis achieves in substance he lacks in form; such a pity as to how disorganized and loosely connected the book is. Also as the book revolves around the 'discovery' of Europe, it implied addressing the initial encounters which took place in the 7th and 8th centuries. I was surprised that most of the content was related to the Ottomans in the 17th and 18th centuries rath As expected from Lewis, this book provides a wealth of insightful information on a perspective that is rarely highlighted. What Lewis achieves in substance he lacks in form; such a pity as to how disorganized and loosely connected the book is. Also as the book revolves around the 'discovery' of Europe, it implied addressing the initial encounters which took place in the 7th and 8th centuries. I was surprised that most of the content was related to the Ottomans in the 17th and 18th centuries rather than the initial encounters by the Arabs a thousand years earlier.

  17. 5 out of 5

    Abdullah M. M. S.

    A very interesting and informative piece of work. The angle the light was shed from was specially very interesting when the author compared two very rich and different civilizations (Muslim and European) in all aspects of life. I agree with most of the author's observations. Nevertheless, I don't think this comparative study included all the literature it should have included (Ibn Katheer's work is one of the examples). Therefore, the message that came through was biased to a slight extent. That' A very interesting and informative piece of work. The angle the light was shed from was specially very interesting when the author compared two very rich and different civilizations (Muslim and European) in all aspects of life. I agree with most of the author's observations. Nevertheless, I don't think this comparative study included all the literature it should have included (Ibn Katheer's work is one of the examples). Therefore, the message that came through was biased to a slight extent. That's why I gave four stars for this book.

  18. 5 out of 5

    Zoe

    Lots of interesting information, would have been improved if I had a better sense of history. Provides sufficient timeline to get a sense in the changes in the Islamic world with regards to Europe. Parts of the book felt very redundant. I remember liking The Crisis of Islam much better. Lots of interesting information, would have been improved if I had a better sense of history. Provides sufficient timeline to get a sense in the changes in the Islamic world with regards to Europe. Parts of the book felt very redundant. I remember liking The Crisis of Islam much better.

  19. 5 out of 5

    Nathan

    Bernard Lewis may be Dick Cheney's favorite intellectual, but this is an excellent compilation of primary sources from the Ottoman heyday on all things European. How different societies view and attempt to understand each other is, of course, a highly relevant topic today and probably always will be. Bernard Lewis may be Dick Cheney's favorite intellectual, but this is an excellent compilation of primary sources from the Ottoman heyday on all things European. How different societies view and attempt to understand each other is, of course, a highly relevant topic today and probably always will be.

  20. 4 out of 5

    Marco

    Opera molto interessante. Sappiamo tutto di noi, "la culla della civiltà", e cosa pensiamo degli "altri". Ma gli altr, il mondo musulmano come ci vedono e come ci hanno visto nel passato? Sorprendente, interessante ed illuminante. Lettura che consiglio. Opera molto interessante. Sappiamo tutto di noi, "la culla della civiltà", e cosa pensiamo degli "altri". Ma gli altr, il mondo musulmano come ci vedono e come ci hanno visto nel passato? Sorprendente, interessante ed illuminante. Lettura che consiglio.

  21. 4 out of 5

    مؤرخ

    التقييم يشمل الترجمة السيئة للكتاب ، الذي لم أستطع قراءته بلغته للأسف. وأنا أنصح بقراءته بلغته الأصل. أما المترجم الكريم فلم يكتفي بالترجمة ، بل وعلق كذلك على فقرات من الكتاب ، وليته لم يفعل. فله أخطاء عجيبة غريبة في هذا الكتاب.

  22. 5 out of 5

    Davide

    Ogni capitolo riprende dall'inizio la successione cronologica, da un punto di vista diverso. Ma, talvolta, il punto di vista è mutato soltanto di poco (aggiungere esempi) e perciò dà vita a ripetizioni, che rendono più difficoltosa, meno fluente, la lettura e può nascere un po' di noia. Ogni capitolo riprende dall'inizio la successione cronologica, da un punto di vista diverso. Ma, talvolta, il punto di vista è mutato soltanto di poco (aggiungere esempi) e perciò dà vita a ripetizioni, che rendono più difficoltosa, meno fluente, la lettura e può nascere un po' di noia.

  23. 5 out of 5

    Mike Klein

    A real good overview by someone who clearly knows his subject. At first I thought that the book being published before 9/11 would be a problem, but I came to believe it is actually a strength. Fairly dry and sometimes feel repetitive, but still worth reading and I recommend it.

  24. 5 out of 5

    Claire S

    Apparently it will be necessary to read this book with a filter, so that the true parts get in and the unsupported conclusions and stereotypes etc.. remain inactive. Not sure how to do that.. maybe need to read other things on the same subject first - if there are any?

  25. 4 out of 5

    Mustafa Altuğ Yayla

  26. 5 out of 5

    Michele Bergadano

  27. 4 out of 5

    Molly

  28. 4 out of 5

    Nicholas

  29. 5 out of 5

    Rohan Verma

  30. 4 out of 5

    Serap Merve DOGAN

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