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The aborted coup in Turkey has fired up interest in a country which will play a critical geopolitical role in the wars of the Middle East. The spotlight will inevitably be on Erdogan the powerful leader of the country - whose increasingly bizarre and authoritarian regime has increased tensions enormously both within and outside the country. His crackdown has been brutal an The aborted coup in Turkey has fired up interest in a country which will play a critical geopolitical role in the wars of the Middle East. The spotlight will inevitably be on Erdogan the powerful leader of the country - whose increasingly bizarre and authoritarian regime has increased tensions enormously both within and outside the country. His crackdown has been brutal and consistent thousands of journalists arrested, academics officially banned from leaving the country, university deans fired and three quarters of highest ranking army officers arrested.In some senses, this coup has given Erdogan the license to make good on his repeated promise to bring order and stability under a strongman . Here, leading Turkish expert Soner Cagaptay will look at where Erdogan comes from in Turkish history, what he believes in, how he has cemented his rule will assess the threats he faces from the liberal youth to the Gulen movement, the army plotters and the Kurdish question."


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The aborted coup in Turkey has fired up interest in a country which will play a critical geopolitical role in the wars of the Middle East. The spotlight will inevitably be on Erdogan the powerful leader of the country - whose increasingly bizarre and authoritarian regime has increased tensions enormously both within and outside the country. His crackdown has been brutal an The aborted coup in Turkey has fired up interest in a country which will play a critical geopolitical role in the wars of the Middle East. The spotlight will inevitably be on Erdogan the powerful leader of the country - whose increasingly bizarre and authoritarian regime has increased tensions enormously both within and outside the country. His crackdown has been brutal and consistent thousands of journalists arrested, academics officially banned from leaving the country, university deans fired and three quarters of highest ranking army officers arrested.In some senses, this coup has given Erdogan the license to make good on his repeated promise to bring order and stability under a strongman . Here, leading Turkish expert Soner Cagaptay will look at where Erdogan comes from in Turkish history, what he believes in, how he has cemented his rule will assess the threats he faces from the liberal youth to the Gulen movement, the army plotters and the Kurdish question."

30 review for The New Sultan: Erdogan and the Crisis of Modern Turkey

  1. 4 out of 5

    Tulay

    Excellent read. Dr. Cagaptay, thank you writing this very informative book. Learned how Erdogan lived, from his schooling to mayor of Istanbul and how he became the president of Turkey. At the beginning US supported him, do understand why. Turkey now not what Ataturk dreamed to be or fought for.

  2. 5 out of 5

    Louise

    This is a short but meaty read on the rise of Recep Tayyip Erdoğan You see how he benefited from the Islamic trends in the region and Turkey’s system where a party needs 10% to be seated in parliament. His early education was through the Imam Hatip educational system. Ataturk banned these schools but allowed a few to remain for training Islamic clergy. For his last years Erdogan went to a secular high school and university. Imam Hatip graduates, while a small number of Turkey’s population, featur This is a short but meaty read on the rise of Recep Tayyip Erdoğan You see how he benefited from the Islamic trends in the region and Turkey’s system where a party needs 10% to be seated in parliament. His early education was through the Imam Hatip educational system. Ataturk banned these schools but allowed a few to remain for training Islamic clergy. For his last years Erdogan went to a secular high school and university. Imam Hatip graduates, while a small number of Turkey’s population, feature in his party and his administrations. Author Soner Çağaptay describes Erdogen’s work as Mayor of Istanbul as energetic and credible. As Prime Minister, his government is credited with creating a middle class. While receiving a growing share of the votes in each election, he has never reached 50% reflecting how he has polarized the nation primarily by pushing back against Ataturk’s westernization and by stoking prejudices against minorities. He has built his power by shutting down presses and stacking the bureaucracy and judgeships with and awarding government contracts to (as the author implies) men who have wives who wear hijabs. He also benefits from the system of censorship, which once had him in jail for reciting a poem. The EU never opened its arms for Turkey and Erdogen’s crackdowns on its opponents and his embrace of the Muslim Brotherhood make what was once a possibility ever more distant. Cagaptay sees Turkey at a crisis. It has isolated itself among nations and is internally polarized. He sees one potential point of change in the growing political strength of the Kurdish minority, particularly if it works with other minorities. The book is short but dense. There are a lot of parties and players to keep track of. I got only the outline (above). There is a lot more detail and insight that was hard to absorb.

  3. 5 out of 5

    Jennifer (JC-S)

    ‘Erdoğan has become the most powerful leader in the country, and he wants to shape it in his image.’ I finished reading this book on the 16th of April, 2017: the day that Recep Tayyip Erdoğan won the Turkish constitutional referendum. The 18 proposed amendments to the Turkish constitution were brought forward by the governing Justice and Development Party (AKP) and the Nationalist Movement Party (MHP). Approval means that the office of the Prime Minister will be abolished and the existing parliam ‘Erdoğan has become the most powerful leader in the country, and he wants to shape it in his image.’ I finished reading this book on the 16th of April, 2017: the day that Recep Tayyip Erdoğan won the Turkish constitutional referendum. The 18 proposed amendments to the Turkish constitution were brought forward by the governing Justice and Development Party (AKP) and the Nationalist Movement Party (MHP). Approval means that the office of the Prime Minister will be abolished and the existing parliamentary system of government will be replaced with an executive presidency and a presidential system. The referendum was held under a state of emergency declared after a failed military coup attempt in July 2016. Other amendments include raising the number of seats in Parliament from 550 to 600 while the president will be given more control over appointments to the Supreme Board of Judges and Prosecutors (HSYK). So, who is Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, and how has he risen to be the most powerful leader in the Turkish republic since Mustafa Kemal Ataturk? What does this mean for both Turkey and the rest of the world? In this book, Dr Cagaptay writes of the factors that shaped Erdoğan’s early life, his introduction to politics, his rise in the AKP, and how he has consolidated his power over the last 15 years. The contrast with the direction in which Ataturk wanted to lead Turkey couldn’t be greater: Ataturk’s vision was for a secular, Westernised nation, while Erdoğan seems to want a conservative, Islamic state. The crisis of modern Turkey is the culmination of a number of different issues: Turkey has become polarised. Erdoğan has played off different groups against each other to achieve his political aims while consolidating Turkey as a regional power. But can Erdoğan’s approach work in the longer term? And at what cost? Turkey is a diverse country, with a number of different ethnic, political and religious groups. In the meantime, journalists and some high-ranking military officers have been arrested, and some academics have been banned from leaving the country. One of the reasons why I chose to read this book was to try to understand how Turkey has changed in the past 20 years. This book gave me some answers, while raising more questions and issues to consider. Not all that long ago, Turkey was considered to be a wonderful (albeit somewhat flawed) example of a middle eastern democracy. Is it possible to still consider Turkey as a democracy? Of what value are democratic institutions if a president has (almost) unfettered power? What will happen next? Note: My thanks to I. B. Tauris and NetGalley for providing me with a free electronic copy of this book for review purposes. Jennifer Cameron-Smith

  4. 5 out of 5

    Ali

    Make Turkey Great Again! Well, I don't know that Erdogan has ever said the exact same words or not, but it is undoubtedly what he is aiming for. Ofcourse, he himself would be the omnipotent leader of this great Turkey, he won't share power with anyone. If you have any doubt, you can ask leftist-liberals, Gulenists (who helped him to undermine secularists and their base in military), Mr. Davutoglu (forme Minister of Foreign Affairs and then Prime Minister) and Kurds. Being the most powerful man d Make Turkey Great Again! Well, I don't know that Erdogan has ever said the exact same words or not, but it is undoubtedly what he is aiming for. Ofcourse, he himself would be the omnipotent leader of this great Turkey, he won't share power with anyone. If you have any doubt, you can ask leftist-liberals, Gulenists (who helped him to undermine secularists and their base in military), Mr. Davutoglu (forme Minister of Foreign Affairs and then Prime Minister) and Kurds. Being the most powerful man did not satisfy him, he had to be the greatest in modern history of Turkey, his legacy should outcast Ataturk's. For that he needed to occupy the seat once belonged to Ataturk, Presidency. He gained that seat too, not exactly the same seat but a different one in a new palace he had built for himslelf. There was only a minor problem, presidency didn't have so much executive power in Turkey although it was highly respected. But Erdogan couldn't stay in sidelines, he was the best player so he should have played and he did! He called for a referendum and increased President's executive authority. He knew he lacked the votes so he started a new policy, fighting with PKK and PYD (Kurdish armed forces in Turkey & Syria). He had done his math right, the votes of ultra-nationalist Turks he gained was way more than Kurdish votes he lost. It's not still the end, he wants to be Sultan. But that goes beyond Turkey, it means real power and influence over neighbor countries. That's where Mr. Erdogan has been unsuccessful and future doesn't seem bright. He has gained no true allies and lost his traditional western ones. That was his dark side, he has also a bright side in his report card. When he gained power, Turkey was in a desperate economic situation with high inflation. He managed to build an economy with phenomenal growth rate and change Turkey from a poor majority to a middle-class majority country. At first he seemed like a moderate religious leader who wanted to change Turkey's "freedom from religion" system to a system of "freedom of religion". It all seemed harmless and Turkey emerged as a role model for other muslim countries in region. As time passed Erdogan got rid of center-right politicians in AKP, gradually gained more power and turned to "The New Sultan". The story is all in this book wich also covers the history of post WWI Turkey and addresses its most imminent problems. It seems accessible for almost anyone but I guess it won't be very fruitful for people who are observing Turkey closely. Author's western tone at times bothered me, but it was not a big issue.

  5. 4 out of 5

    Margaret Sankey

    This is a really handy brief recap of 20th century Turkish politics, used to explicate the formative years and political rise of Erdogan--from conservative student to Istanbul mayor to head of state, all the while using Ataturk tactics to produce anti-Ataturk outcomes. Cagaptay is clear-eyed about Turkey's potential futures, especially Erdogan's control of a country that is deeply divided and dependent on continued economic growth to sustain its middle-class transformation.

  6. 5 out of 5

    Pinar Coskun

    While I am not sure if there is any group in Turkey that deserves to be presented as an equal to ISIS with regards to the threat they pose and the destruction they have caused upon the world; this is a marvelous piece of introductory reading.

  7. 4 out of 5

    Emre

    The New Sultan: Erdogan and the Crisis of Modern Turkey by Soner Çağaptay is a very good primer on modern Turkish political history. Its story begins roughly at the time of current Turkish President Reccep Tayyip Erdogan’s birth in 1954, around when Turkey began its tumultuous emergence as a multiparty democracy after decades of revolutionary one-party rule by the Ottoman generation of Kemalists. It traces Turkey’s political history from its initial democratic struggles against the Kemalist deep The New Sultan: Erdogan and the Crisis of Modern Turkey by Soner Çağaptay is a very good primer on modern Turkish political history. Its story begins roughly at the time of current Turkish President Reccep Tayyip Erdogan’s birth in 1954, around when Turkey began its tumultuous emergence as a multiparty democracy after decades of revolutionary one-party rule by the Ottoman generation of Kemalists. It traces Turkey’s political history from its initial democratic struggles against the Kemalist deep state, through the cold war violence between left and right, the neoliberal periods of austerity and economic crisis, and finally to the dramatic appearance of Erdogan’s conservative coalition. Parallel to these developments in high politics, the book also delves into the mysterious world of Islamic associations and educational institutions, through which President Erdogan gained his religious education and found a role to play as a political leader and organizer, and eventually the rising-star mayor of an emerging metropolis, Istanbul. The book then examines his long national leadership, running through its successes and obstacles. The end of the book is dedicated to Cagaptay’s assessment of the current state of the republic, including his recommendations for both Erdogan and his opposition, and his positive and negative visions of Turkey’s future prospects.The book does have certain gaps, which I think limit its narrative and leave unanswered questions. It tries to discuss the background of modern Islamism in Turkey, specifically during its multiparty period. This narrative, however, seems to center only on certain key people, such as former Islamist leader Necmettin Erbakan, and of course Erdogan himself. I still think the author could have dedicated more time to this section, as this microcosm in Turkish society remains something of a mystery, even to Turks who live within Turkey. Obviously there is much more to this community than has been discussed in the mainstream discourse, especially when considering the bewilderment of experts during the shocking aftermath of the coup in July 2016. The Gulenists in particular are a bit neglected in the book, and only abruptly mentioned in the end of the book for several pages, despite playing an instrumental role (which, to be fair, the author repeatedly acknowledges) in Turkish politics behind the scenes. Perhaps this fascinating topic cannot be adequately addressed in an introductory book, and I should reiterate that Cagaptay does discuss most of these topics sufficiently as an introduction.Nevertheless, I would recommend this book to anyone who is unfamiliar with Turkish politics, because it incisively covers all of the essentials in Turkish political history from events, people, factions, and evolving politics and socioeconomics. Its assessment of Turkey in recent years is subjective. The author criticizes all sides for their shortcomings, be they liberals, Kurds, nationalists, secularists, Islamists, or the West. It is up to you to you to agree or disagree with Cagaptay’s assessment, but he does a good job of providing a tidy sequence of events from Menderes to ISIS.

  8. 4 out of 5

    Joel

    Recep Tayyip Erdoğan is the most important Turkish politician since Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. Over the past two decades Erdoğan has outlasted and outwitted all possible challengers to leave his mark on contemporary Turkey, for better or worse. One could compare him to Richard Nixon, LBJ and Robert Moses, Americans who have been the subjects of multiple well researched and written biographies, and yet he has had a greater impact on the course of his nation than either Nixon or Johnson did, and his s Recep Tayyip Erdoğan is the most important Turkish politician since Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. Over the past two decades Erdoğan has outlasted and outwitted all possible challengers to leave his mark on contemporary Turkey, for better or worse. One could compare him to Richard Nixon, LBJ and Robert Moses, Americans who have been the subjects of multiple well researched and written biographies, and yet he has had a greater impact on the course of his nation than either Nixon or Johnson did, and his span of power is much greater than anything enjoyed by Robert Moses. Moreover, Erdoğan remains alive, in power, with great influence every day on issues of great interest to many intelligent English speakers, such as political Islam, the Syrian civil war, the battle against ISIS, and the European refugee crisis. Surely there should be a strong market for a well researched, well written biography of a man with such an interesting political pedigree, who has succeeded against the odds and is more powerful today than at any time in his career to date. And yet, while Ataturk has captured the imagination of the West and serious new biographies of Ataturk continue to be published in English even today, to date there has not been one decent, well written biography of Erdoğan in English. This is a serious tragedy, given that in theory the source material for a biography of Erdoğan, with most potential interview subjects still living and a large volume of his public speeches in TV and newspaper archives across Turkey, is much more voluminous than it is for Ataturk. Into this void, alas, Çağaptay's new book does not step. Although Çağaptay has an academic pedigree, his CV and the writing of the book suggests that he is less of a scholarly historian than a policy analyst in the Washington DC think tank circuit. His biography of Erdoğan reflects this policy orientation, with no evidence of original research from primary sources on Erdoğan's early life, his family, his rise to prominence or the key events of his career. Instead the book relies heavily on a list of secondary sources that will be familiar to anyone who has sought in vain previously to find something serious on Erdoğan's early life (e.g. Ruşen Çakır) and then seeks to put this limited biography into a political context for a Western audience before spending the last quarter of the book examining the key domestic and foreign policy questions facing Erdoğan. As such, while this book may be useful for bringing someone unfamiliar with Erdoğan or modern Turkish politics up to speed on the broad brush strokes, it will date quickly and will not meaningfully add to or challenge the understanding of anyone with long experience watching Turkey. For those of us who grew up in Erdoğan's shadow (he became mayor of Istanbul in March 1994, three months before I first arrived in Turkey as a 9 year old with my parents) we still await the Robert Caro of Turkish political biography to come and give us the full story...

  9. 5 out of 5

    Hany

    The author is an alarmist and clearly an anti-Islamists and anti-MB to the point that he sounded at times repulsively biased and lacking in objectivity especially in his description of the Islamization policy in Turkey as ruinous (p 197) and dangerous (p 199). Other than that, the book is very much worth reading and the historical and political analysis are sharp in my opinion.

  10. 5 out of 5

    AC

    An excellent primer, informed, sober, and very readable — for those with no memory or background on the rise of Erdogan. But the book was written in 2016, soon after the July coup — and things have deteriorated significantly since. Cagaptay’s new book (2019) is thus up next.

  11. 5 out of 5

    Erkan

    Same facts, different analysis Cagaptay's previous work, Rise of Turkey, has more or less the same set of observations, with a much more positive tone, only a small number of reservations. Looks like Cagaptay, like many other western analysts, left Erdogan, without an open self-crtism or apology. Deserves a comparative read with the earlier work of Cagaptay.

  12. 5 out of 5

    Ellen

    This book was written a couple of years ago, so it's not up-to-date on all the developments with Erdogan's Turkey, but it's a good place to start to get some information on what's going on in that country. We hear a lot about Turkey on the news (if you pay attention to international news, that is), but I have the feeling that most Americans know very little about it. This book wasn't always the most fun to read. The way it was sort of broken up into chapters within chapters could get annoying at This book was written a couple of years ago, so it's not up-to-date on all the developments with Erdogan's Turkey, but it's a good place to start to get some information on what's going on in that country. We hear a lot about Turkey on the news (if you pay attention to international news, that is), but I have the feeling that most Americans know very little about it. This book wasn't always the most fun to read. The way it was sort of broken up into chapters within chapters could get annoying at times, and there were so many abbreviations for political parties that I spend probably 10 mins over the course of reading simply looking back at the list of parties to see which was which. That aside, the book was filled with great information that helped me get an idea of who Erdogan is and what his motives are.

  13. 4 out of 5

    Sean B

    A great history of modern Turkey. It isn't very in-depth, but it is a good introduction to Turkey, and explains how Erdogan rose to the top (and continues to rule). Definitely recommend if you're looking for a quick, accessible way to learn about the current Turkish government and how it came about.

  14. 5 out of 5

    Diane

    This book is a biography of Erdogan, and focuses on the ways in which he resembles Ataturk, although his goals are oppositional. I thought the author provides more analysis of Erdogan's history and current policies than most other books about modern Turkey.

  15. 5 out of 5

    ehk2

    Certainly written for a foreign readership audience in mind, it is a journalistic account of AKP years (facts followed by facts followed by facts...) -not much to be objected to, but not also very helpful to grasp underlying dynamics in a scholarly sense. It consists of two parts: an account of Turkish history in general -AKP years in particular + policy analyses, suggestions, predictions for the near future, suited with author's position in the USA (which I'm less interested). Cagaptay seems to Certainly written for a foreign readership audience in mind, it is a journalistic account of AKP years (facts followed by facts followed by facts...) -not much to be objected to, but not also very helpful to grasp underlying dynamics in a scholarly sense. It consists of two parts: an account of Turkish history in general -AKP years in particular + policy analyses, suggestions, predictions for the near future, suited with author's position in the USA (which I'm less interested). Cagaptay seems to be giving advices, presenting options to Erdogan -in reality, he certainly knows that Erdogan neither needs nor listens to these. (-Either be a failed sultan or return to your early days & turn your face to Washington D.C.) A failed rhetorical device... Author's attempt to establish a form of parallelism between the life trajectories of Orhan Pamuk's Mevlut and Erdogan is another failed literary device. First and foremost, Mevlut was a (fictional) man, for whom politics in its excessive forms was rather unsettlingly funny/artificial/inauthentic. Mevlut was apolitical, shunning from it. Also, he did not have a grudge specifically against country's secularist establishment (contra Cagaptay suggests). Or, he had against all equally! The much repeated so-called Turkish Wirtschaftswunder (!) is never explained in detail -though he is not an economist- and just referenced to like-minded people or gross data as if it's an undisputed phenomenon or discussed without the winners and losers of it. In addition, it is not always a good idea to translate proper names: Istanbul Erkek Lisesi - Boys' High School. Karakol Cemiyeti - Black Hand Society (!) A LMAO moment: "Before government confiscated it, Sabah was known as the New York Times of Turkey due to its liberal content". Really? It has always been rubbish, as far as I remember... By the way, Cagaptay has a very broad or vague way of using the word "liberal", so as to make it useless or meaningless... In early pages, author implies police measures for immigration control in Istanbul where people "were detained by military police and sent back whence they come". I doubt that. I won't bother to investigate it, because I am certain that low levels of migration to cities was about socioeconomic pull&push factors at that time, not securitarian policies... I never heart that measure. Another point I didn't hear and know, but resist to believe (Cagaptay isn't an author who has a habit to provide extensive references to his claims): PKK "with which Russia has historic ties going back to that organization's founding with Soviet support in the 1970s". PKK could not be said among the most pro-Soviet parties of the day! Overall, there is not much to be objected to. It is good for foreigners. As for natives, we are all too-well acquainted living with the Sultan, I hope. Therefore there is not much original or to be learnt for us here. Dackali abimim yine de eline saglik.

  16. 4 out of 5

    Ilana

    I was looking for quite a long time for a book which explains extensively the victorious power take of Erdogan in the last decade. This book is exactly what I needed to understand the roots of his movement as well as his political personality. From his versatility in using Gulen for his own purposes and ending up considering him his enemy no.1, until his more subtle dramatic shaking of the Kemalism, Erdogan is an interesting personality, but that bad kind of interesting. With a clear aim for pow I was looking for quite a long time for a book which explains extensively the victorious power take of Erdogan in the last decade. This book is exactly what I needed to understand the roots of his movement as well as his political personality. From his versatility in using Gulen for his own purposes and ending up considering him his enemy no.1, until his more subtle dramatic shaking of the Kemalism, Erdogan is an interesting personality, but that bad kind of interesting. With a clear aim for power - the more the better - and a machiavellianism and hunger for recognition typical for people with very modest origins, he is hard to stop and even harder to avoid as an important political pawn on the world map. But will his will for power lead the country in a direction where salvation from the religious extreme is still possible? Or he is rather one step before being the victim of the system he created? The book goes into deep analysis of the social and political roots of the current situation in Turkey, with interesting insights and powerful features of the main episodes of Erdogan's raise to power. Recommended to anyone curious to find out more about the latest political evolutions in the Middle East and the changes underwent by Turkey in the last decades. Disclaimer: Book offered by the publisher in exchange for an honest review

  17. 4 out of 5

    Rajat

    The near collapse of the Lira prompted me to study the historical antecedents leading upto the rout of the currency. 'The New Sultan' identified here is the one who is responsible for the economic crisis, as well as for the international ignominy and dissidence that gnaws at Turkey today. Soner Cagaptay introduces the rise of the 'Sultan' by mentioning how the founding father of modern Turkey, Ataturk, envisaged it as a secular country built on modern social values and technology, even if that m The near collapse of the Lira prompted me to study the historical antecedents leading upto the rout of the currency. 'The New Sultan' identified here is the one who is responsible for the economic crisis, as well as for the international ignominy and dissidence that gnaws at Turkey today. Soner Cagaptay introduces the rise of the 'Sultan' by mentioning how the founding father of modern Turkey, Ataturk, envisaged it as a secular country built on modern social values and technology, even if that meant embracing western ideas. What we have nearly 90 years later is a near illiberal shadow autocracy that seems to have adopted anti-westernism and pro-islamism as its credo. A country that started out as the bridge between Europe and Asia now seems to be burning the edges on both sides. However, as the author mentions, it would be obliquely pessimistic to suggest that syncretism borne out of historical traditions going back hundreds of years are going to be washed away in less than two decades, that too at the behest of someone who enjoys support of just half the voting base. Altogether an interesting read to understand politics of the country today, and how Erdogan's unassailable assault on Turkey's values has come to find an audience.

  18. 5 out of 5

    Levent Mollamustafaoglu

    A good summary of the rise of Erdogan and the development of the authoritarian regime by a Turkish scholar. It does not really have any new information, but a calm analysis of the last 50 years, ending up in the current situation. The timeline stops right after the failed coup of 2016 but it has enough material to explain the events in this saga.

  19. 4 out of 5

    Shafia

    immensely enjoyed reading this, highly recommended for more insight on Erdogan's life and Turkish politics.

  20. 5 out of 5

    Jumatil Fajar

    Buku ini bagus untuk melihat Erdogan dari kaca mata orang luar. Bisa menjadi masukan untuk perbaikan ke depan.

  21. 4 out of 5

    Paula

    A well written book covering key issues facing US-Turkish relations. I teach a graduate level course on the Ottoman Empire and modern day Turkey, and this book was required reading in the Fall 2017.

  22. 4 out of 5

    Frank Van De Pieterman

    Easy read, but still comprehensive and deep, about Turkish landscape in which Erdogan rose to power. Definitely recommended for people who want to know more about what is happening.

  23. 5 out of 5

    Linda Slonecker

    Learning Erdogan's Turkey A pivotal country in the middle of all the middle east chaos. Erdogan wants to be Islamist kingpin in the region and lose the pro western label.

  24. 4 out of 5

    Emil Erstad

    Kven er Erdogan? Kva er hans politiske prosjekt? Kvar kjem han frå? Og kva skjer med Tyrkia no? Denne boka svarar godt på fleire av desse spørsmåla. Tilrådast for å forstå Tyrkia betre.

  25. 4 out of 5

    Meral Ma

    A sober overview of Turkish Political history and the Rise of Erdogan,who in many ways is a product of the tortured relationship of its institutions (mostly its military) and population.The writing style is easy to follow for those who want learn more about Turkey.Soner Çağaptay takes a very balanced view of Erdogan and give a good picture of the 'Second Ataturk' (with all its connotations).

  26. 4 out of 5

    Nathaniel Annunziata

    Plain and straight-forward language make this text extremely digestible.

  27. 5 out of 5

    Amudzen

  28. 4 out of 5

    Yannick M

  29. 4 out of 5

    iitu

  30. 4 out of 5

    Callie

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