counter create hit Negara: The Theatre State in Nineteenth-Century Bali - Download Free eBook
Hot Best Seller

Negara: The Theatre State in Nineteenth-Century Bali

Availability: Ready to download

Combining great learning, interpretative originality, analytical sensitivity, and a charismatic prose style, Clifford Geertz has produced a lasting body of work with influence throughout the humanities and social sciences, and remains the foremost anthropologist in America. His 1980 book Negara analyzed the social organization of Bali before it was colonized by the Dutch in Combining great learning, interpretative originality, analytical sensitivity, and a charismatic prose style, Clifford Geertz has produced a lasting body of work with influence throughout the humanities and social sciences, and remains the foremost anthropologist in America. His 1980 book Negara analyzed the social organization of Bali before it was colonized by the Dutch in 1906. Here Geertz applied his widely influential method of cultural interpretation to the myths, ceremonies, rituals, and symbols of a precolonial state. He found that the nineteenth-century Balinese state defied easy conceptualization by the familiar models of political theory and the standard Western approaches to understanding politics. Negara means "country" or "seat of political authority" in Indonesian. In Bali Geertz found negara to be a "theatre state," governed by rituals and symbols rather than by force. The Balinese state did not specialize in tyranny, conquest, or effective administration. Instead, it emphasized spectacle. The elaborate ceremonies and productions the state created were "not means to political ends: they were the ends themselves, they were what the state was for.... Power served pomp, not pomp power." Geertz argued more forcefully in Negara than in any of his other books for the fundamental importance of the culture of politics to a society. Much of Geertz's previous work--including his world-famous essay on the Balinese cockfight--can be seen as leading up to the full portrait of the "poetics of power" that Negara so vividly depicts.


Compare

Combining great learning, interpretative originality, analytical sensitivity, and a charismatic prose style, Clifford Geertz has produced a lasting body of work with influence throughout the humanities and social sciences, and remains the foremost anthropologist in America. His 1980 book Negara analyzed the social organization of Bali before it was colonized by the Dutch in Combining great learning, interpretative originality, analytical sensitivity, and a charismatic prose style, Clifford Geertz has produced a lasting body of work with influence throughout the humanities and social sciences, and remains the foremost anthropologist in America. His 1980 book Negara analyzed the social organization of Bali before it was colonized by the Dutch in 1906. Here Geertz applied his widely influential method of cultural interpretation to the myths, ceremonies, rituals, and symbols of a precolonial state. He found that the nineteenth-century Balinese state defied easy conceptualization by the familiar models of political theory and the standard Western approaches to understanding politics. Negara means "country" or "seat of political authority" in Indonesian. In Bali Geertz found negara to be a "theatre state," governed by rituals and symbols rather than by force. The Balinese state did not specialize in tyranny, conquest, or effective administration. Instead, it emphasized spectacle. The elaborate ceremonies and productions the state created were "not means to political ends: they were the ends themselves, they were what the state was for.... Power served pomp, not pomp power." Geertz argued more forcefully in Negara than in any of his other books for the fundamental importance of the culture of politics to a society. Much of Geertz's previous work--including his world-famous essay on the Balinese cockfight--can be seen as leading up to the full portrait of the "poetics of power" that Negara so vividly depicts.

30 review for Negara: The Theatre State in Nineteenth-Century Bali

  1. 4 out of 5

    Bob Newman

    "Tis nothing but a Magic Shadow-show" Bali flits in and out of the Western imagination: Conradian tropic kingdoms, National Geographic star attraction, Mead-Covarrubias-Belo-Geertz himself, tourist paradise (ever-fading). What is Bali all about besides emerald rice terraces, bare breasted beauties, cheap surfing holidays, and tremendously elaborate ceremonies featuring gamelan orchestras and graceful dancers ? Bali is indeed a mystery. If you approach NEGARA with the desire to learn more about t "Tis nothing but a Magic Shadow-show" Bali flits in and out of the Western imagination: Conradian tropic kingdoms, National Geographic star attraction, Mead-Covarrubias-Belo-Geertz himself, tourist paradise (ever-fading). What is Bali all about besides emerald rice terraces, bare breasted beauties, cheap surfing holidays, and tremendously elaborate ceremonies featuring gamelan orchestras and graceful dancers ? Bali is indeed a mystery. If you approach NEGARA with the desire to learn more about this marvelous Indonesian island, you may go away disappointed. There are no Balinese voices in the book; modern Bali is hardly discussed. NEGARA is an important book, but for those who specialize in the study of Southeast Asian kingdoms, for those who would like to question the standard Western method of studying political power, and for those interested in 19th century Balinese history as interpreted by America's foremost anthropologist, who is rather more known for creative (I'm with him) interpretations than for intensive field work. Geertz' work is going to last a very long time---something that can hardly be said about most anthropological writing. The reason is that he constantly sees things in a different way and can express his vision very clearly. His other books on Indonesia, for example "The Religion of Java", "Islam Observed", "Pedlars and Princes" and "Agricultural Involution" have all been classics for years. His article on the Balinese cockfight is one of the most seminal anthropological pieces ever written. The Balinese state did not specialize in tyranny, conquest or effective administration. Its emphasis was on "spectacle, toward ceremony, toward the public dramatization of the ruling obsessions of Balinese culture: social inequality and status pride. It was a theatre state..." All the elaborate productions created were "not means to political ends: they were the ends themselves, they were what the state was for......Power served pomp, not pomp power." (p.13) Geertz spends most of the 136 page book proving this point. [There are also 120 pages of notes.] There are detailed discussions of descent groups, client relationships, three major varieties of village organization aimed at administration, irrigation, and worship, and the connection between court and village. Then follows the scrutiny of ritual, ceremony, and symbols in Geertz' inimitable style. The point must be taken: Balinese society was one of unending rivalry for prestige among very-established levels of hierarchy which were, nonetheless, extremely fluid. The endless reiteration in symbolic, ceremonial terms of a fixed set of relations made up the Balinese theater state. NEGARA, not a new book, is by now established as a classic text in Anthropology courses, in Religious Studies, Political Science, and Southeast Asian Studies in universities around the world. It portrays a political system that did not conform to the usual Western idea of what political power is all about. Geertz writes that he wanted to write a poetics of power, not a mechanics. He was successful. Readers may wonder if the ability to command and use resources like land, water, timber, or the sea, if the ability to control labor, even if indirectly, if the ability to control power, even if sporadic, do not underlie theater productions in a more definite way. But I think they will have to admit that NEGARA is a powerful politico-historical description that, for once, does not try to twist and mold the data to fit a traditional Western description of a political system. Symbolic action is not at all limited to Indonesian islands. Somebody may yet write a description of the USA as a "Theater State" albeit a very different one from old Bali. NEGARA contains many challenges. It is a great book.

  2. 5 out of 5

    Nick

    In an essay, Clifford Geertz wrote of the challenge of writing on the anthropology of religion as in danger convincing "a great many people, both inside the profession and out, that anthropologists are ... firmly dedicated to proving the indubitable". His examples were studies that linked initiation rites have to do with sexual identity and adulthood, or that myths provided justification for social institutions and class structures. In "Negara" (the word means "state", "realm", "capital", and "t In an essay, Clifford Geertz wrote of the challenge of writing on the anthropology of religion as in danger convincing "a great many people, both inside the profession and out, that anthropologists are ... firmly dedicated to proving the indubitable". His examples were studies that linked initiation rites have to do with sexual identity and adulthood, or that myths provided justification for social institutions and class structures. In "Negara" (the word means "state", "realm", "capital", and "town" in Balinese), Geertz set out to meet that challenge. There is a fair amount of discussion of the interrelationship of various types of Balinese institutions that provided the guidelines for kingship, caste (Bali being an Indic culture), religion, and the all-important question of who receives irrigation water. The moments that stand out here are the spectacular end of the Balinese kingships and the royal funeral. The first was the virtual suicide of the last kings of Bali. The king of Mengwi, old, unable to walk and in utter defeat, insisted upon being carried toward mercenary riflemen in the service of his enemies (indigenous kings, not the Dutch) until they were forced to kill him. Within a week, one of the victor kings and his wife were captured by the Dutch and committed suicide. Two years later, the ruler of the most powerful of the traditional seven kingdoms of Bali led his court to death at the hands of Dutch gunners. At a different king's funeral, as recounted by a Western merchant, the body was cremated within the wooden lion. Into the fire jumped three women--according to the witness, only the third hesitated, and she did so only briefly. These are truly arresting moments, but are other issues of interest: the central role of women in trade; the not unusual tension between royal authority and strictly religious, aggravated by the divinity of the kings. This was a regime falling apart not just because of political conquest but because of widening trade. Weaving, which had been a specialty, grew in demand, which resulted in the planting of cotton. Power had traditionally resided in the highlands, which controlled the flow of fresh water, a scheme that was upended by the development of trading enclaves (which failed to keep merchants from traveling all over the island to sell. among much else, opium). Balinese women lost much of their role in the economy to outsiders from elsewhere in the archipelago, and eventually to Chinese, Arabs and Muslims from the subcontinent. Geertz's essential argument is that spectacle--as with the blazing funeral--enhanced the divine aura of kingship. (It is harder to see how the suicidal last kings fit that pattern, since they were essentially marking the end of the dynastic line). So when Westerners are entranced by the exquisite dancing and gamelan music that now entertains tourists and educates musicians, they are witnessing the modern curation of arts created to intensify the sense of the divinity of long-gone kings. Whether Geertz' insight, for all the close reading of traditional Balinese irrigation, caste, and dynastic systems, meets the test he set out in the essay quoted above is debatable. Certainly, the death of a traditional society is always of interest (at least to me). Yet can one be truly surprised of the notion that spectacle is designed to legitimate authority--on today of all days, which marks the much-anticipated meeting of the tenant of the Kremlin, the bare-chested hunter, and the tenant of the White House, the man who retweeted a clip in which he threw himself at a man in a suit outside a wrestling ring?

  3. 5 out of 5

    Kahfi Ananda

    Sama seperti bukunya yang lain dengan judul Involusi Pertanian, membaca buku Geertz tuh harus bener-bener seksama. Tidak bisa sembarang baca saja kalau ingin memahami betul maksud sebenernya. Geertz dalam buku ini menelaah tentang definisi negara pada masa Bali Klasik, bagaimana negara tersebut dijalankan, dan seperti apa bentuk-bentuk yang membentuk berbagai simpul bersilang sengkarut dalam merangkai sebuah negara. Negara Teater akan terasa sangat relevan karena tak ubahnya seperti personifikasi Sama seperti bukunya yang lain dengan judul Involusi Pertanian, membaca buku Geertz tuh harus bener-bener seksama. Tidak bisa sembarang baca saja kalau ingin memahami betul maksud sebenernya. Geertz dalam buku ini menelaah tentang definisi negara pada masa Bali Klasik, bagaimana negara tersebut dijalankan, dan seperti apa bentuk-bentuk yang membentuk berbagai simpul bersilang sengkarut dalam merangkai sebuah negara. Negara Teater akan terasa sangat relevan karena tak ubahnya seperti personifikasi dari sistem demokrasi yang masih dibalut dengan rasa feodalisme dalam praktik-praktiknya.

  4. 5 out of 5

    nanto

    Dapatnya malah di Karisma Batam. Sempat tidak yakin mengenai cerita tentang buku ini. Akhirnya setelah konsultasi dengan seorang teman, benar buku ini yang salah satu ceritanya adalah tertangkapnya Geerzt saat nonton sabung ayam di Bali. Bayangkan, untuk menghasilkan buku ini penulisnya harus layak diuber-uber polisi dan mendekam di sel barang sebentar. Kalau saja Geertz menulis buku ini di tahun belakangan ini, tentunya dia sudah jadi bahan buat Bang Joe di acaranya yang mengupas kriminalitas da Dapatnya malah di Karisma Batam. Sempat tidak yakin mengenai cerita tentang buku ini. Akhirnya setelah konsultasi dengan seorang teman, benar buku ini yang salah satu ceritanya adalah tertangkapnya Geerzt saat nonton sabung ayam di Bali. Bayangkan, untuk menghasilkan buku ini penulisnya harus layak diuber-uber polisi dan mendekam di sel barang sebentar. Kalau saja Geertz menulis buku ini di tahun belakangan ini, tentunya dia sudah jadi bahan buat Bang Joe di acaranya yang mengupas kriminalitas dari sisi komedi itu. hehehe *Update 10 Agustus Pernah membaca buku teknik membaca cepat? Didalamnya antara lain ada tips tentang perluasan pandangan melalui sudut mata peripheral (lebar sudut pandang), pencarian makna sehingga alih-alih membaca kata-per-kata kita dianjurkan membaca phrase yang mengandung makna. Selain sebuah upaya "strukturasi" buku yang menjadi bangunan bagi pemasukan keping makna yang kita pungut dari tiap lembar halaman. Yang terakhir ini penting bagi kita untuk membuat pemahaman kita menjadi utuh. Proses reinterpretasi yang membedakan kita dari sekedar menghapal. Namun semua tips itu sebenarnya melupakan sebuah dasar tentang membaca: kognisi kita akan topik yang dikandung dalam sebuah bacaan. Benar, membaca adalah proses mengunyah makna melalui pemasukan informasi dan interpretasi yang kecepatannya sebanding dengan keakraban kita dengan topik yang sedang dibaca. Begitulah saya mencoba beralasan mengapa buku ini sedemikian lambat saya baca. Utamanya adalah karena hal di atas. Saya awam tentang Bali, apalagi Bali yang coba dicerna dalam sebuah negara teatrikal, negara sarat simbol seperti yang diobservasi oleh Geertz. Masih Niat untuk membacanya, khususnya mengenai metode penelitian dan teknik interpretasinya.

  5. 5 out of 5

    Patrick

    Very fun to read, even 37 years later!

  6. 4 out of 5

    Vivienne Kruger

    Geertz, a social anthropologist at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton University, is a prolific scholar on Balinese and Indonesian political and state organization. "Negara" is a Sanskrit word which originally meant "town"; in Bahasa Indonesia it now signifies nation or realm--the seat of political authority. Its opposite is "desa," the village, place, region, or governed area. Between these two contrasting poles-negara and desa-the classical polity developed. In his search for the "n Geertz, a social anthropologist at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton University, is a prolific scholar on Balinese and Indonesian political and state organization. "Negara" is a Sanskrit word which originally meant "town"; in Bahasa Indonesia it now signifies nation or realm--the seat of political authority. Its opposite is "desa," the village, place, region, or governed area. Between these two contrasting poles-negara and desa-the classical polity developed. In his search for the "negara," the traditional state of pre-colonial Bali, he casts a wide analytical net over the cultural streams that flowed unchecked in to the archipelago for over 3,000 years from India, China, the Middle East, and Europe. Foreign contact/intervention left a permanent stamp on the island chain in the form of a Hindu civilization on Bali, Chinatowns in Jakarta, and a multiplicity of social structures, economic forms and kinship organizations. Geertz traces the sociological and historical interplay of state formation and dissolution and power and status distribution in 14th to 19th century Bali-an island symbolically caught in a parallel tug of nature between the tranquil Java sea to the north and the treacherous Indian Ocean to the south. Heavy on political theory, this book is more suitable for academicians, history buffs, and college students than for the general reader or the package holiday tourist. Substantiated by critical reviews of the scholarly literature, 130 pages of explanatory footnotes, and a lengthy bibliography, Negara puts forth a persuasive final model of the Balinese state as a distinctive political order. To understand Bali's past, is to understand Bali's present and future. Review written by Dr. Vivienne Kruger, Ph.D., author of Balinese Food: The Traditional Cuisine and Food Culture of Bali (Tuttle Publishing, 2014).

  7. 4 out of 5

    Gede Suprayoga

    This book is an interesting interpretation of a society cultural life, Balinese, before the Dutch invasion. I really admire Prof. Geertz's knowledge and his intellectual work in capturing and articulating every aspect of the society. This book is full with description and facts that support the thesis. The Theatre State depicts the mental structure of Balinese expressed in social and religious ceremony and their devotion to their King. A complex social structure is also designed to maintain soci This book is an interesting interpretation of a society cultural life, Balinese, before the Dutch invasion. I really admire Prof. Geertz's knowledge and his intellectual work in capturing and articulating every aspect of the society. This book is full with description and facts that support the thesis. The Theatre State depicts the mental structure of Balinese expressed in social and religious ceremony and their devotion to their King. A complex social structure is also designed to maintain society' belief about sacred interaction with God and environment. In the State, the society culminates their social stability concern and cultural expression with lots of drama, up and down emotional feelings and unreturned material/immaterial sacrifice.

  8. 4 out of 5

    Kwan Qi Xiang

    First three chapters, which were mind-numbingly boring, were too long. The interesting last two chapters (Chapter 4 and Conclusion) were too short. The boring parts perhaps could not have been written in any other way. How exciting can describing social, political and economic structures be? So, I don't blame Geertz. It's just the ethnographic/anthropological field at work. The second portion which examines and reads rituals, is interesting, though too coherent to be true. I don't know enough ab First three chapters, which were mind-numbingly boring, were too long. The interesting last two chapters (Chapter 4 and Conclusion) were too short. The boring parts perhaps could not have been written in any other way. How exciting can describing social, political and economic structures be? So, I don't blame Geertz. It's just the ethnographic/anthropological field at work. The second portion which examines and reads rituals, is interesting, though too coherent to be true. I don't know enough about Bali to comment on how good his reading is, but my instincts rankle at the coherence with which Geertz infuses Balinese history.

  9. 4 out of 5

    Anjanette Mapp

    The review states that the title, "Negara," is in Indonesian. I have never heard of such a language. However, the appellation "negara" is eerily similar to an expression in quite a few Indo-Aryan and Sino-Tibetan languages that instructs the recipient to "leave off of such misbehavior." Perhaps Geertz' idealization and perpetuation of the so-called "theatre-state" garnered this title from a colleague or offended associate. Assigned this book in a sociolinguistic course at the university level, I The review states that the title, "Negara," is in Indonesian. I have never heard of such a language. However, the appellation "negara" is eerily similar to an expression in quite a few Indo-Aryan and Sino-Tibetan languages that instructs the recipient to "leave off of such misbehavior." Perhaps Geertz' idealization and perpetuation of the so-called "theatre-state" garnered this title from a colleague or offended associate. Assigned this book in a sociolinguistic course at the university level, I found it to be verbose and not sufficiently prosaic to make it readable.

  10. 5 out of 5

    Paula

    I remember very little about this -- I read it for school. because I was just burning through it at the time, I can't give it a fair rating. I should read it again. But it does contain one of my favorite quotes: "One of the most significant facts about us may finally be that we all begin with the natural equipment to live a thousand kinds of lives, but end in the end having lived only one." I remember very little about this -- I read it for school. because I was just burning through it at the time, I can't give it a fair rating. I should read it again. But it does contain one of my favorite quotes: "One of the most significant facts about us may finally be that we all begin with the natural equipment to live a thousand kinds of lives, but end in the end having lived only one."

  11. 4 out of 5

    Narvendina

    Negara dalam konteks Bali menurut Geertz, penulis yang merupakan ahli antropologi, adalah "negara teater" yang diperintah melalui ritual dan simbol-simbol. Sangat sulit bagi saya untuk membaca dan menyerap buku ini dengan cepat, dengan banyaknya kerangka studi sejarah, etnografis, sosiologis yang dipaparkan... Negara dalam konteks Bali menurut Geertz, penulis yang merupakan ahli antropologi, adalah "negara teater" yang diperintah melalui ritual dan simbol-simbol. Sangat sulit bagi saya untuk membaca dan menyerap buku ini dengan cepat, dengan banyaknya kerangka studi sejarah, etnografis, sosiologis yang dipaparkan...

  12. 4 out of 5

    Erik Wirfs-Brock

    A description of society stranger than most science fiction or fantasy novels, endlessly repeating and overlapping hierarchies meant to represent the underlying cosmic order, forever quarreling kings without the possibility of ever achieving permanent power, elaborate treaties really written to give an excuse to break them.

  13. 5 out of 5

    Eli Jacobs

    this book is great, but i found it fairly boring. i probably need to go back and look at it again.

  14. 4 out of 5

    Yokonita

    fantastic narrative of cremation ritual

  15. 4 out of 5

    Rodrigo Gaetani

  16. 5 out of 5

    Joe Clifford

  17. 5 out of 5

    Tonny Mustika

  18. 4 out of 5

    Abdelrahman Mahmoud

  19. 4 out of 5

    Darth Pika

  20. 5 out of 5

    Danny Cardoza

  21. 5 out of 5

    Katie

  22. 4 out of 5

    Ekin Razali

  23. 4 out of 5

    Janar Qaken

  24. 4 out of 5

    Iqbar

  25. 4 out of 5

    Tbelfield

  26. 5 out of 5

    Lanny

  27. 5 out of 5

    Andy

  28. 4 out of 5

    Levi Roach

  29. 5 out of 5

    agoraolha1

  30. 4 out of 5

    Caklul Foe

Add a review

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Loading...
We use cookies to give you the best online experience. By using our website you agree to our use of cookies in accordance with our cookie policy.