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One of The Christian Science Monitor's ten best books of June An innovative biography of Edgar Allan Poe—highlighting his fascination and feuds with science. Decade after decade, Edgar Allan Poe remains one of the most popular American writers. He is beloved around the world for his pioneering detective fiction, tales of horror, and haunting, atmospheric verse. But what if t One of The Christian Science Monitor's ten best books of June An innovative biography of Edgar Allan Poe—highlighting his fascination and feuds with science. Decade after decade, Edgar Allan Poe remains one of the most popular American writers. He is beloved around the world for his pioneering detective fiction, tales of horror, and haunting, atmospheric verse. But what if there was another side to the man who wrote “The Raven” and “The Fall of the House of Usher”? In The Reason for the Darkness of the Night, John Tresch offers a bold new biography of a writer whose short, tortured life continues to fascinate. Shining a spotlight on an era when the lines separating entertainment, speculation, and scientific inquiry were blurred, Tresch reveals Poe’s obsession with science and lifelong ambition to advance and question human knowledge. Even as he composed dazzling works of fiction, he remained an avid and often combative commentator on new discoveries, publishing and hustling in literary scenes that also hosted the era’s most prominent scientists, semi-scientists, and pseudo-intellectual rogues. As one newspaper put it, “Mr. Poe is not merely a man of science—not merely a poet—not merely a man of letters. He is all combined; and perhaps he is something more.” Taking us through his early training in mathematics and engineering at West Point and the tumultuous years that followed, Tresch shows that Poe lived, thought, and suffered surrounded by science—and that many of his most renowned and imaginative works can best be understood in its company. He cast doubt on perceived certainties even as he hungered for knowledge, and at the end of his life delivered a mind-bending lecture on the origins of the universe that would win the admiration of twentieth-century physicists. Pursuing extraordinary conjectures and a unique aesthetic vision, he remained a figure of explosive contradiction: he gleefully exposed the hoaxes of the era’s scientific fraudsters even as he perpetrated hoaxes himself. Tracing Poe’s hard and brilliant journey, The Reason for the Darkness of the Night is an essential new portrait of a writer whose life is synonymous with mystery and imagination—and an entertaining, erudite tour of the world of American science just as it was beginning to come into its own.


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One of The Christian Science Monitor's ten best books of June An innovative biography of Edgar Allan Poe—highlighting his fascination and feuds with science. Decade after decade, Edgar Allan Poe remains one of the most popular American writers. He is beloved around the world for his pioneering detective fiction, tales of horror, and haunting, atmospheric verse. But what if t One of The Christian Science Monitor's ten best books of June An innovative biography of Edgar Allan Poe—highlighting his fascination and feuds with science. Decade after decade, Edgar Allan Poe remains one of the most popular American writers. He is beloved around the world for his pioneering detective fiction, tales of horror, and haunting, atmospheric verse. But what if there was another side to the man who wrote “The Raven” and “The Fall of the House of Usher”? In The Reason for the Darkness of the Night, John Tresch offers a bold new biography of a writer whose short, tortured life continues to fascinate. Shining a spotlight on an era when the lines separating entertainment, speculation, and scientific inquiry were blurred, Tresch reveals Poe’s obsession with science and lifelong ambition to advance and question human knowledge. Even as he composed dazzling works of fiction, he remained an avid and often combative commentator on new discoveries, publishing and hustling in literary scenes that also hosted the era’s most prominent scientists, semi-scientists, and pseudo-intellectual rogues. As one newspaper put it, “Mr. Poe is not merely a man of science—not merely a poet—not merely a man of letters. He is all combined; and perhaps he is something more.” Taking us through his early training in mathematics and engineering at West Point and the tumultuous years that followed, Tresch shows that Poe lived, thought, and suffered surrounded by science—and that many of his most renowned and imaginative works can best be understood in its company. He cast doubt on perceived certainties even as he hungered for knowledge, and at the end of his life delivered a mind-bending lecture on the origins of the universe that would win the admiration of twentieth-century physicists. Pursuing extraordinary conjectures and a unique aesthetic vision, he remained a figure of explosive contradiction: he gleefully exposed the hoaxes of the era’s scientific fraudsters even as he perpetrated hoaxes himself. Tracing Poe’s hard and brilliant journey, The Reason for the Darkness of the Night is an essential new portrait of a writer whose life is synonymous with mystery and imagination—and an entertaining, erudite tour of the world of American science just as it was beginning to come into its own.

30 review for The Reason for the Darkness of the Night: Edgar Allan Poe and the Forging of American Science

  1. 4 out of 5

    Diane S ☔

    3.5 This is the first full length biography I have read of Poe and it revealed many, to me at least, surprising insights. Science vs. literary pursuits. There is much I had known of Poe, snippets I read here and there, in other books. I did know he went to West Point, served in the military, married his cousin, etc. What I didn't know was his avid interest in science. An interest that formed in his youth and that was reflected in some of his poems and fiction. His life was prolific but personall 3.5 This is the first full length biography I have read of Poe and it revealed many, to me at least, surprising insights. Science vs. literary pursuits. There is much I had known of Poe, snippets I read here and there, in other books. I did know he went to West Point, served in the military, married his cousin, etc. What I didn't know was his avid interest in science. An interest that formed in his youth and that was reflected in some of his poems and fiction. His life was prolific but personally sad. The early death if his wife, his drinking all presented challenges that he never seemed to overcome. His last lectures on science, were ones he hoped would provide redemption and bring him back into the public eye. The author I think has presented a good portrait of this tortured genius. I enjoyed his insightful outlook and discussions of Poe's many literary pursuits.

  2. 5 out of 5

    Nancy

    The Reason for the Darkness of the Night: Edgar Allan Poe and the Forging of American Science by John Tresch is the first biography I have read of Poe. I was totally enthralled. Tresch's approach gives us a man of technological and scientific insight, an expert craftsman with the pen, an original thinker, and a relentless worker. And yet, everything was against Poe, he struggled to provide basic needs, and his dreams were always beyond reach. It is one of the saddest biographies I have ever read The Reason for the Darkness of the Night: Edgar Allan Poe and the Forging of American Science by John Tresch is the first biography I have read of Poe. I was totally enthralled. Tresch's approach gives us a man of technological and scientific insight, an expert craftsman with the pen, an original thinker, and a relentless worker. And yet, everything was against Poe, he struggled to provide basic needs, and his dreams were always beyond reach. It is one of the saddest biographies I have ever read. A genius with everything against him, a man who achieved great heights and died with nothing. Had he been born in a different time, would his fate have been happier? I first read Poe in my grandfather's 1926 paperback 101 Famous Poems in which I discovered The Raven, The Bells, and To Helen. Then, I discovered a complete set of Poe on gramp's shelves and borrowed the volumes so often, he told me to just keep them. This was almost 57 years ago! Like my own grandfather, Poe's father had abandoned his mother and with her death was an orphan. Like my grandfather, Poe was taken to be raised by a family without formal adoption. Like my grandfather, Poe was sent into the world without enough financial support to live on. Like Poe, my grandfather was an engineer, a writer, relentlessly working three jobs to support his family. Unlike my grandfather, Poe had been raised by a wealthy family and had expectations of being supported to continue that lifestyle. Plus, he had inherited the family problem of alcoholism. Poe embraced two interests: the advancement of a distinct American literature that could rival Europe's, and an interest in science and technology. His classical education, training at West Point, deep reading, and relentless pursuit of financial security and fame was derailed by his inability to handle alcohol, which was almost impossible to avoid in society or business. He took on his aunt and cousin as family, his love for both deep and sincere. They starved with him and followed him from home to home. He married his child bride cousin, who died of tuberculosis, perhaps the inspiration for his poem Annabel Lee. Poe lived in an age when science and pseudoscience and faith clashed. He reacted to the new scientific ideas that precluded purpose and meaning to existence. Tresch begins and ends with Poe's lecture Eureka! which presented radical ideas that later were seen as foreshadowing current theories accepted in the scientific community. He neither envisioned a universe controlled by a deity, or abandoned by a deity, or once created remained unchanged. His universe was dynamic and evolving. He saw that science had its limits in understanding the human experience and place in the universe. Poe lived during the rise of the magazine, and he relentlessly wrote articles of every kind, published in magazines such as Graham's Ladies and Gentleman's Magazine; forty years ago I bought an 1841 bound volume in a Maine antique shop which included numerous works by Poe, articles on cryptography and autography (analyzing signatures), The Colloquy of Monos and Una, and the poems Israfel and To Helen. It was so interesting to read Tresch's comments on these articles and poems. The Colloquy, he comments, includes lines that foretold the future: "Meantime huge smoking cities arose, innumerable. Green leaves shrank before the hot breath of furnaces. The fair face of Nature was deformed as with the ravages of some loathsome disease.[...]now it appears that we had worked out our own destruction in the perversion of our taste, or rather in the blind neglect of its culture in the schools." He continues, "Taste along could have led us gently back to Beauty, to Nature, and to Life." With my new insights into Poe, I really must return and reread his work. I received a free galley from the publisher through NetGalley. My review is fair and unbiased.

  3. 5 out of 5

    J Earl

    The Reason for the Darkness of the Night by John Tresch is one of the best biographies of Poe I have read and could serve as an example for future biographers when writing about someone who has been largely presented from one limited perspective. Tresch doesn't so much refute every mistake or overstatement made about Poe as he simply presents Poe in his entirety, as a complete person, flaws and all. Though he does take the time to show the intentional and planned tainting of Poe's legacy after h The Reason for the Darkness of the Night by John Tresch is one of the best biographies of Poe I have read and could serve as an example for future biographers when writing about someone who has been largely presented from one limited perspective. Tresch doesn't so much refute every mistake or overstatement made about Poe as he simply presents Poe in his entirety, as a complete person, flaws and all. Though he does take the time to show the intentional and planned tainting of Poe's legacy after his death. It is mistaken to imply that all previous biographies bought wholly into the troubled alcoholic theme, most over the past several decade have been less negative on Poe as a person. Even in the early 90s when I was taking a course with J Gerald Kennedy we learned that Poe was far more nuanced than we had been led to believe. That said, this is one of the, if not the, first biographies to focus on all that Poe accomplished and tried to accomplish and not on his flaws and weaknesses. While science serves as the opportunity and perspective from which Tresch recovers Poe, it is not simply a book about Poe and science. It is literary criticism as well, showing how scientific thought, as well as the changes within the science community, influenced Poe's fiction as well as his nonfiction. His attempts, many successful to some degree, of organizing and categorizing aspects of writing and reading. His contributions have influenced genre fiction, and fiction as a whole, to this day. From the single effect to ratiocination, Poe is still with us today. I would highly recommend this to those who like biographies of literary figures as well as anyone who is interested in the history of science, since the period covered was pivotal to how we now perceive science. Reviewed from a copy made available by the publisher via NetGalley.

  4. 5 out of 5

    Crystal

    If you are looking for a biography that goes beyond the printed works of Edgar Allan Poe, then this is the biography for you. I have learned so much more in just the first few pages of this book, than I did in all my years of schooling. At first, I tried to look at this from the publisher’s point of view. A work is presented about the life of an American literary institution. Someone who whole college courses are taught about. Someone who is studied from birth to death, what more could be said. If you are looking for a biography that goes beyond the printed works of Edgar Allan Poe, then this is the biography for you. I have learned so much more in just the first few pages of this book, than I did in all my years of schooling. At first, I tried to look at this from the publisher’s point of view. A work is presented about the life of an American literary institution. Someone who whole college courses are taught about. Someone who is studied from birth to death, what more could be said. Well, this biographer found it, wrote it, and nailed it, in my opinion. This biography isn’t just a dry, dusty regurgitation of facts either. It’s interspersed with works I’d not read, snippets of his life I hadn’t known. It’s not limited to his writings either. The author discusses Poe’s love of science and math, his time at West Point and how hard he worked to gain entry only to leave before finishing. But it’s his whole life, not just the early years like I’ve listed here. We float through Poe’s whole, albeit short life. Through the ups, and the downs that we’ve all heard about. Poe’s flaws are laid wide open for the reader to traipse through, but we also see his drive, his wit, his genius. In my opinion, this is the best biography I’ve read about this esteemed literary giant, and even though Poe has been gone 172 years, I feel closer to him now than I ever have. Thank you, Mr. Tresch for such a moving biography. If you want to know more about the original master of both detective novels and horror stories, please read this biography, you won’t be disappointed. **I received an ARC of this book from the Publisher and NetGalley and this is my honest opinion.

  5. 4 out of 5

    Dan

    My thanks to both NetGalley and the publisher Farrar, Straus and Giroux for an advanced copy of this new biography. Edgar Allan Poe has been the subject of many articles, essays, studies, documentaries, movies, novels even a rock album. What could be left to write about after almost 175 years that hasn't been mined before. John Tresch in his new biography The Reason for the Darkness of the Night: Edgar Allan Poe and the Forging of American Science shows that there is still much to learn about thi My thanks to both NetGalley and the publisher Farrar, Straus and Giroux for an advanced copy of this new biography. Edgar Allan Poe has been the subject of many articles, essays, studies, documentaries, movies, novels even a rock album. What could be left to write about after almost 175 years that hasn't been mined before. John Tresch in his new biography The Reason for the Darkness of the Night: Edgar Allan Poe and the Forging of American Science shows that there is still much to learn about this doomed writer and his influences. Discussing not only Poe's troubled life, an his literary aspirations, the book also covers Poe's scientific bent, started as a young child and one he carried on in his writings, an a later attempt on the lecture circuits. Mr. Tresch discusses and the growth of scientific literacy in America, the various factions who argued and feuded to control this burgeoning community and how Poe found himself in the middle, making enemies among men of science as easily as he did among editors of literary magazines. Science and technology and their affect on Poe is interesting, and one I don't remember reading about. I know that some of his stories could be considered science fiction, or the science bunkum that was big among various newspapers for circulation numbers. I knew that Poe attended West Point, but I had no idea the lengths that he went to attend, I'll leave that to the reader to find out. And his attendance I thought was from his family attempting to make something of him, not that Poe himself wanted to go for West Point was considered one of the best places to learn engineering, which he hoped would secure him a future. A very interesting incredibly well written and researched biography, that makes one look at Poe's works with new eyes and ideas. Highly recommended for both literary and scientific history fans, and for those who just enjoy a great read.

  6. 5 out of 5

    Michael Reilly

    Edgar Allan Poe was fascinated with science and philosophy. He sprinkled his stories and essays with references to scientific interests and fads of his day. Mesmerism (hypnotism), phrenology (head shapes are destiny), photography, transcendentalism, telescopes, hot air balloons, and polar expedition where all hot topics in the America of the 1830s and 40s and they all featured prominently in Poe's writing. I always assumed that Poe had only an amateur's interest in that type of stuff but that he Edgar Allan Poe was fascinated with science and philosophy. He sprinkled his stories and essays with references to scientific interests and fads of his day. Mesmerism (hypnotism), phrenology (head shapes are destiny), photography, transcendentalism, telescopes, hot air balloons, and polar expedition where all hot topics in the America of the 1830s and 40s and they all featured prominently in Poe's writing. I always assumed that Poe had only an amateur's interest in that type of stuff but that he was a savvy commercial writer who knew he could sell stories and essays on those themes. John Tresch, in this new biography of Poe, argues that scientific interests where at the core of Poe's writings and thought. He argues that Poe was not a dabbler in science, he was a serious student. I am not completely convinced. Tresch describes the scientific and philosophical world of early 19th century America in detail. Tresch shows that Poe read the new books and articles and frequently worked them into his writing. However, almost all of the examples Tresch points to show Poe dropping phrases or fancy sounding language. There is not much evidence of him being more than an interested amateur. Tresch's big example is the oddest book written by Poe. Near the end of his short life he delivered a lecture and published a book entitled "Eureka: A Prose Poem". Most previous biographers have dismissed it as a confusing farrago of pseudo-philosophy. Tresch disagrees. He argues that "Sharing divine thoughts, thinking of and with the cosmos, Poe realized that he, the universe and the deity must be one." and that "Eureka was one of the most creative, audacious and idiosyncratic syntheses of science and aesthetics in nineteenth-century America." ( Actually the second sentence may be technically correct since there was not much competition for that title.) The two volume Library of America edition of Poe's work includes "Eureka". I dipped into it. It is tough going. I won't pile on with incomprehensible quotes, but it is so vague and abstract that a sympathetic reader could find support for almost any pet theory. Tresch argues that Poe foreshadowed Einstein's relativity and the big bang theory. This is a solid biography. Tresch is very good on Poe's world. He gives us a feel for Poe in the army and at West Point. He shows the sharp elbows of Poe's literary world. Poe's personal and family life is a disaster. Poe was a classic binge drinking alcoholic. I was surprised that Tresch described the drinking problems in detail but never mentioned alcoholism. Perhaps he avoided it because it was not a word in use during Poe's lifetime. Tresch is not a lively writer. He has a ponderous academic style which can be wearing. This is a major Poe biography, but not my kettle of fish.

  7. 4 out of 5

    Chad Guarino

    Approaching a canonical, American titan of literature such as Edgar Allan Poe must seem incredibly daunting for a biographer. In Poe we have a man already the subject of countless articles, books, and films that, thanks in part to some cleverly placed slander after his death, carries with him the stigma of alcoholism and itinerant poverty to go along with his genius in letters. John Tresch's solution to that is to approach Poe from a novel angle, taking into account the burgeoning scientific sce Approaching a canonical, American titan of literature such as Edgar Allan Poe must seem incredibly daunting for a biographer. In Poe we have a man already the subject of countless articles, books, and films that, thanks in part to some cleverly placed slander after his death, carries with him the stigma of alcoholism and itinerant poverty to go along with his genius in letters. John Tresch's solution to that is to approach Poe from a novel angle, taking into account the burgeoning scientific scene of his time and the author's contributions to the cause as well as the inspirations he took into his writing. The Reason for the Darkness of the Night paints Poe in a far different light from the other biographical accounts of his life that I have read. Rather than completely focusing on Poe's reputation as tortured and poverty stricken goth genius, Tresch shows Poe as actively engaged with, and often at odds with, the wider scientific community around him. Alternating between debunking hoaxes and perpetuating them himself as well as fraternizing and then later being at loggerheads with the premier scientific minds of the time, Tresch shows Poe as an often enigmatic figure who nevertheless added (and took inspiration from) scientific advancement far more than he is given lasting credit for. Tresch also does a fantastic job showing the overarching sadness and tangle of contradictions that defined Poe's life. He achieved critical success with his writing and became a household name with the publication of the Raven, but was never able to turn this into any sort of lasting monetary success. Tresch juxtaposes glowing critical reviews of Poe's work with stark depictions of the author and his family engulfed in near starvation poverty made worse by his unpredictable bouts of drunken sickness. While Poe's struggles cannot be denied, Tresch ardently defends and debunks the image of the man dying "friendless and alone in a gutter" as the product of jealous posthumous revisionist history and proves Poe's undeniable contributions to both American literature and modern science. **I was given a copy of this book by the publisher via NetGalley in exchange for an honest review. My thanks to Farrar, Straus and Giroux**

  8. 5 out of 5

    Brenda

    Ever since my mom quoted Edgar Allan Poe's poetry to me as a child, I was fascinated by the enigma and mystery which enshrouded him. He seemed almost otherworldly. But this book answered many questions as well as posed others. Poe is still mysterious but I know much more about him now than ever before. He accomplished so much by the time he died at 40...it makes me wonder what else he would have accomplished had he died at 75. Most of us know Poe best by his powerful poems such as the dark and s Ever since my mom quoted Edgar Allan Poe's poetry to me as a child, I was fascinated by the enigma and mystery which enshrouded him. He seemed almost otherworldly. But this book answered many questions as well as posed others. Poe is still mysterious but I know much more about him now than ever before. He accomplished so much by the time he died at 40...it makes me wonder what else he would have accomplished had he died at 75. Most of us know Poe best by his powerful poems such as the dark and stark "The Raven" and short stories including The Pit and the Pendulum, The Cask of Amontillado and The Tell-Tale Heart and his character Auguste Dupin in The Murders in the Rue Morgue and others. As a young man he wrote for and edited many newspapers, tantalizing with his cliffhangers and ongoing sagas. Poe's scientific slant was completely new to me, though unsurprising. He was also a brilliant lecturer and expounded upon religion, philosophy, astronomy and metaphysics. He believed "Eureka" to be his best work which I now long to read. Poe married his young cousin, Virginia, who had chronic illnesses much of her life. At times he said he thought he was insane. He had been an orphan and had a cruel step father. Extreme poverty and homelessness were common to him. To me it seemed he was sorely misunderstood and in ways much ahead of his time. He liked Charles Dickens and Oscar Wilde but disparaged Longfellow. Even after his death he was scorned, though also venerated. Poe's quick intelligence and wit must have been truly fascinating. I would love to see him debate his contemporaries such as Wilde. Poe did enjoy spurts of fame now and then during his lifetime but as he was an orphan and not connected to wealth or position was not as known as he ought to have been. My sincere thank you to Farrar, Straus and Giroux and NetGalley for the privilege of reading this book about a writer I've held in esteem and admired for his unparalleled writing of his time.

  9. 5 out of 5

    Meaghan

    Please read my full review here: https://www.mwgerard.com/review-reaso... I found this book fascinating, enlightening, and intriguing, and not only because I am a Poe adherent. Author John Tresch delves into a short moment in the history of American science, one that is often only referenced. By focusing on the two decades around Poe’s most prolific years, readers can really get a sense of the disparate ideas and turbulent scene among scientific thinkers. The book is primarily a biography, but vie Please read my full review here: https://www.mwgerard.com/review-reaso... I found this book fascinating, enlightening, and intriguing, and not only because I am a Poe adherent. Author John Tresch delves into a short moment in the history of American science, one that is often only referenced. By focusing on the two decades around Poe’s most prolific years, readers can really get a sense of the disparate ideas and turbulent scene among scientific thinkers. The book is primarily a biography, but views its subject through the lens of science and writing efforts. Clear lines are drawn between Poe’s life events, the scientific community’s academic conversation, and Poe’s literary output. When the world was enraptured by Arctic exploration, Poe was inspired to write The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym. As scientists worked to collect, categorize, and classify the natural world, Poe was hired to write The Conchologist’s First Book, an illustrated guidebook to oceanic shells. When the theory of phrenology claimed to predict criminal behavior, Poe penned his tales of ratiocination. As much as I’ve read Poe, read about Poe, and noticed Poe’s interest in the technical, I was unaware of how directly involved he was with the scientific discourse. He gave lectures and presented philosophical treatises on the origins of the Universe. Throughout his public life, he struggled to combine Man’s tendency to imagine and the rigorous discipline of science. From “Sonnet-To Science” to this cosmological treatise Eureka, Poe diligently worked to bring the ethereal nature of poetry and the tangible study of sciences.

  10. 4 out of 5

    Marie Hesler

    I want to thank the publishers and NetGalley for allowing me the opportunity to read and review this book. I have always enjoyed the works of Edgar Allan Poe. It was very enlightening to read a very detailed account of Poe’s life. The book describes in detail the many hardships from being orphaned to ill treatment by his guardian. Poe’s life was filled with struggles and failures and challenges that seem insurmountable. Despite these obstacles Poe was driven to study and write. This book is extre I want to thank the publishers and NetGalley for allowing me the opportunity to read and review this book. I have always enjoyed the works of Edgar Allan Poe. It was very enlightening to read a very detailed account of Poe’s life. The book describes in detail the many hardships from being orphaned to ill treatment by his guardian. Poe’s life was filled with struggles and failures and challenges that seem insurmountable. Despite these obstacles Poe was driven to study and write. This book is extremely detailed and a comprehensive account of one of America’s most misunderstood authors. The book explains the inaccurate characterization that was falsely created by a literary rival after Poe’s death. This book is for anyone wanting to in learn more about Poe.

  11. 5 out of 5

    Barry Edstene

    One of the best (make that the best) books on Poe that I have had the pleasure to read. I knew a lot about the life of Poe. But this is the first time I have had everything put in perspective. This book helped me to better understand Poe on a most personal level.

  12. 5 out of 5

    E.

    An absolute delight.

  13. 4 out of 5

    Erika

  14. 5 out of 5

    Tim Donaldson

  15. 4 out of 5

    Betsy

  16. 5 out of 5

    Alf Rehn

  17. 4 out of 5

    Renée

  18. 5 out of 5

    Chris Kennelly

  19. 5 out of 5

    Pam

  20. 5 out of 5

    RJ

  21. 5 out of 5

    MATTHEW

  22. 5 out of 5

    John Bitrick

  23. 4 out of 5

    Justin

  24. 5 out of 5

    Matt

  25. 4 out of 5

    Carole Cerniglia

  26. 5 out of 5

    Tom Briggs

  27. 4 out of 5

    Evie

  28. 5 out of 5

    Makanjuola

  29. 4 out of 5

    Cheryl

  30. 5 out of 5

    Marge Donaldson

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