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Enslaved mariners, white seamstresses, Irish dockhands, free black domestic servants, and native-born street sweepers all navigated the low-end labor market in post-Revolutionary Baltimore. Seth Rockman considers this diverse workforce, exploring how race, sex, nativity, and legal status determined the economic opportunities and vulnerabilities of working families in the e Enslaved mariners, white seamstresses, Irish dockhands, free black domestic servants, and native-born street sweepers all navigated the low-end labor market in post-Revolutionary Baltimore. Seth Rockman considers this diverse workforce, exploring how race, sex, nativity, and legal status determined the economic opportunities and vulnerabilities of working families in the early republic. In the era of Frederick Douglass, Baltimore's distinctive economy featured many slaves who earned wages and white workers who performed backbreaking labor. By focusing his study on this boomtown, Rockman reassesses the roles of race and region and rewrites the history of class and capitalism in the United States during this time. Rockman describes the material experiences of low-wage workers—how they found work, translated labor into food, fuel, and rent, and navigated underground economies and social welfare systems. He also explores what happened if they failed to find work or lost their jobs. Rockman argues that the American working class emerged from the everyday struggles of these low-wage workers. Their labor was indispensable to the early republic’s market revolution, and it was central to the transformation of the United States into the wealthiest society in the Western world. Rockman’s research includes construction site payrolls, employment advertisements, almshouse records, court petitions, and the nation’s first "living wage" campaign. These rich accounts of day laborers and domestic servants illuminate the history of early republic capitalism and its consequences for working families.


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Enslaved mariners, white seamstresses, Irish dockhands, free black domestic servants, and native-born street sweepers all navigated the low-end labor market in post-Revolutionary Baltimore. Seth Rockman considers this diverse workforce, exploring how race, sex, nativity, and legal status determined the economic opportunities and vulnerabilities of working families in the e Enslaved mariners, white seamstresses, Irish dockhands, free black domestic servants, and native-born street sweepers all navigated the low-end labor market in post-Revolutionary Baltimore. Seth Rockman considers this diverse workforce, exploring how race, sex, nativity, and legal status determined the economic opportunities and vulnerabilities of working families in the early republic. In the era of Frederick Douglass, Baltimore's distinctive economy featured many slaves who earned wages and white workers who performed backbreaking labor. By focusing his study on this boomtown, Rockman reassesses the roles of race and region and rewrites the history of class and capitalism in the United States during this time. Rockman describes the material experiences of low-wage workers—how they found work, translated labor into food, fuel, and rent, and navigated underground economies and social welfare systems. He also explores what happened if they failed to find work or lost their jobs. Rockman argues that the American working class emerged from the everyday struggles of these low-wage workers. Their labor was indispensable to the early republic’s market revolution, and it was central to the transformation of the United States into the wealthiest society in the Western world. Rockman’s research includes construction site payrolls, employment advertisements, almshouse records, court petitions, and the nation’s first "living wage" campaign. These rich accounts of day laborers and domestic servants illuminate the history of early republic capitalism and its consequences for working families.

30 review for Scraping By: Wage Labor, Slavery, and Survival in Early Baltimore

  1. 4 out of 5

    Dave

    This is a fascinating look at the wage laborers at the very bottom of the economic food chain in the early 1800s. Historians have written about the artisans in this time period, but for the most part have neglected the poorest of the poor - women who do the wash and work as seamstresses, men who constantly worked to dredge the Baltimore Harbor or were "street scrapers" (use your imagination - horses were the basic mode of transport, so what do you think they were scraping?) Baltimore was an espe This is a fascinating look at the wage laborers at the very bottom of the economic food chain in the early 1800s. Historians have written about the artisans in this time period, but for the most part have neglected the poorest of the poor - women who do the wash and work as seamstresses, men who constantly worked to dredge the Baltimore Harbor or were "street scrapers" (use your imagination - horses were the basic mode of transport, so what do you think they were scraping?) Baltimore was an especially interesting city to study in the 1800s because it was part northern, part southern. There were many freed blacks as well as slaves. The freedpeople worked not just to feed and shelter themselves, but also often were trying to save enough to buy a family member's freedom. During a time when many fortunes were made in America, this is a picture of the workers whose labors enabled that wealthy class to rise.

  2. 5 out of 5

    Jerrod

    This is a great example of history paired with sociology. Rockman does a great job of describing Baltimore and really gives the reader a feel for the city. He describes the horror of slavery, with the ever present threat of being separated from the ones you love, while giving a sense of the limitations placed on slave owners actions and brutality by embedded social networks and by the outside options of their slaves (running away, work slow downs, etc.). The emergence of term slavery created a t This is a great example of history paired with sociology. Rockman does a great job of describing Baltimore and really gives the reader a feel for the city. He describes the horror of slavery, with the ever present threat of being separated from the ones you love, while giving a sense of the limitations placed on slave owners actions and brutality by embedded social networks and by the outside options of their slaves (running away, work slow downs, etc.). The emergence of term slavery created a thicker market for slaves while also providing slaves an incentive to not runaway. While the author notes the vagaries of city life, city living providing more options than rural life. You also get a sense of the varied household arrangements, opportunities for men and women to work, and government restrictions on market activity that generally hurt the poor. If you can read past the Marxist quackery and obvious scorn Rockman has for anything resembling a market economy, it is a well written work. One of the interesting bits in the narrative is that Rockman discusses how the poor white worker can't make enough to pay for all his needs while also putting something away for later for when work is scarce. I have no doubt that life was rough and miserable in early republic Baltimore, but I can't help juxtapose Rockman's narrative of the white working poor with the stories he relays about free black families providing for themselves while also saving enough money to buy the freedom of their enslaved relatives. The way Rockman writes, free blacks and the white working poor lived in similar conditions, but some free blacks (in the face of discriminatory practices) are able to accumulate a fair amount of extra savings while the white working poor are not. notes: - 1800, 1/3 of Baltimore's 26,000 worked as unskilled - "Even with wintertime slowdowns, summertime epidemics, and unpredictable economic fluctuations, Baltimore offered more jobs and higher wages than did the countryside." - Baltimore merchants campaigned against a petitioned-for ban on black carters - a group of striking journeymen in 1809 were convicted of conspiring to remove their labor from the market - social ostracism put limits on the violence slave-holders might use, so they used a mix of carrots and the stick of selling slaves to the deep South to keep slaves productive - term slavery (for slaves who had a post dated manumission date on deeds) made the market for slaves thicker, allowing middle class to obtain more slaves due to lower prices - slaves' self-purchase gave the slave owner a ready buyer, which incentivized slave-owners to allow slaves to rent out their labor - newspaper advertisements for a slave sale find several examples of restrictions on where the slaves can be taken after purchase (seemingly a concession to other slaves who are related to the slave for sale) - turnover on the mud-machine was dependent on overall economic conditions (with longer tenures during the 1819 recession) (this seemingly goes against the authors' constant presumption of power on the side of the employer) - restrictions put in place on selling wares outside of the city's marketplace (so much for free markets, eh?) - "urban women performed the hidden labor of capitalist economies: the work of social reproduction." (birthing, raising, washing, feeding, etc.) (I guess this is not hidden in other economies?) - "At least one sixth of advertisements seeking or offering enslaved workers in Baltimore referred to the possibility of hiring" - term slaves made up about 20 percent of all slave sales in early Baltimore - providing laundry services allowed free black women to remain at home, utilize family labor, work near neighbors, and avoid direct white supervision - rather than building factories or pursuing technological innovation, manufacturers simplified (or deskilled) clothing construction (seamstresses were among the freest workers in early republic capitalism) - "The centerpiece of working-class survival was the creation of collective economic enterprises, otherwise known as households." (These included traditional patriarchy, cohabiting outside of marriage, etc., multigenerational, multifamily, and sometimes multiracial) - "the market value of a woman's unpaid domestic labor outstripped the total amount of wages earned by most laboring men, making the acquisition of a wife one of the savviest things a poor man could do" - some employers went to "money markets" every Saturday to purchase bills below face value in order to pay laborers at the end of the week (which were not always redeemable at face value) - from 1802 the law stipulated loaves of bread in only 2 sizes: 1.5 and 3 pounds (this disadvantaged those who could only afford less) - to access the almshouse, a person would have to receive an admission warrant from his "ward manager of the poor", a prominent neighbor resident - the almshouse played a large role in provided seasonal or temporary need - men's use of the almshouse spiked in the winter while women's use was much more steady. The female population was constant throughout the year. - "Whenever human labor is bought and sold as a market commodity, prosperity and privation serve to create and reinforce one another." Dubious.

  3. 5 out of 5

    Craig

    The city of Baltimore was a grim and brutal place for helpless wage labourers who struggled daily in the early decades of the new nation. It was survival of the fittest for these workers who toiled as best they could in the capitalist jungles that were America’s cities. Historian Seth Rockman sets this cruel scene time and again in his book Scraping By: Wage Labor, Slavery, and Survival in Early Baltimore through exhibiting the horrendous conditions experienced by low-wage workers between 1790 The city of Baltimore was a grim and brutal place for helpless wage labourers who struggled daily in the early decades of the new nation. It was survival of the fittest for these workers who toiled as best they could in the capitalist jungles that were America’s cities. Historian Seth Rockman sets this cruel scene time and again in his book Scraping By: Wage Labor, Slavery, and Survival in Early Baltimore through exhibiting the horrendous conditions experienced by low-wage workers between 1790 and 1840. In a similar vein as Upton Sinclair, he depicts the commodification of labour through its impact on the everyday lives of individuals in a prosperous American urban centre. Early Baltimore, Maryland, was an ideal setting for Rockman’s version of socio-economic Darwinism in the young republic. It was a recently developed city with a booming economy which contained a complex concoction of people who provided employers with a perfect “alchemy” of potential workers for exploitation. This included slaves and indentured servants, migrant labourers from elsewhere in the states, free men and women as well as children, in addition to significant numbers of immigrants streaming into the city all competing in what seems like an endless pursuit for the privileges of political and economic freedom. Rockman contends that this erratic system of capitalism in the post-Revolutionary United States prospered not in spite of but rather because of the exploitation of these workers. In demonstrating this, Scraping By should be deemed of great importance in that it signifies the possibility of producing history from the perspective of the marginalized, in this case the manual wage labourers of Baltimore. This work would be incapable of telling the story of the working class if it were not for Rockman’s extensive investigation of primary source materials. While he enhances his understanding of the political economy in early American society with a substantial and varied analysis of secondary sources, it is his ability to scrutinize and implement primary sources that proved monumental in this undertaking. Four sets of original source materials were relied upon including municipal archival documents, state and local petitions, institutional records like those from Maryland’s penitentiary and Baltimore’s almshouse, and lastly, newspaper ads. Despite the difficult research process, Rockman seems to have a gift for giving life to the people listed in mundane documents such as payroll records. He probably does this most indelibly in the early chapters when describing the disparate bridge builders at Jones Falls and again in depicting the insecure lives of the hardy men who dredged the harbour on the city’s infamous “mudmachine.” Integrating such stunning portrayals into a thematically organized book permits Rockman to construct a considerable social history narrative that effectively tackles various demographics and aspects of their privation one topic at a time. This book offers vivid characterizations of the wage labourers in early republic Baltimore who struggle under the laws and economics of a society designed to put them at a disadvantage. Rockman reveals a city whose powerbrokers are manipulative in maintaining as large of a reserve of workers as possible. It is what anthropologist Eric R. Wolf referred to as “the general tendency of the capitalist mode to create a ‘disposable mass’ of labourers out of diverse populations, and to then throw that mass into the breach to meet the changing needs of capital.” With free men and women working and competing against the unfree or indentured, this tendency is exemplified on numerous occasions in Scraping By. For instance, working-class women and children were pressed into manufacturing employment for lower pay while middle-class and elite families in Baltimore protected themselves from such circumstances. Even the American Colonization Society, which hoped to exile African Americans to Liberia, lacked support from Baltimore business leaders who were presumably resisting limiting their pool of potential workers. The population growth of the city’s working classes was indeed welcomed by bankers, manufacturers and merchants in the early nineteenth century. Such Marxian historiography or ‘history from below’ as presented by Rockman in his account of early Baltimore conveys a social history not ordinarily portrayed so adeptly. Seth Rockman deserves to be commended for his work in Scraping By for several reasons. His effective use of primary source materials despite the well-known difficulty in documenting the working class and his first-rate production of a competent social history from the perspective of the marginalized are most notable. However, where he seems to lose his footing at times is in his attempts to articulate a clear narrative concerning class as the dominant factor influencing capitalism in the new country. Occasionally clouding Rockman’s history of the menial labourers occurs when he considers the influence of race, ethnicity, and gender but has trouble conveying their importance compared to class. This is quite apparent when he discusses race and gender and indicating the greater difficulties experienced by African Americans and women in supporting themselves through wage labour. At mixed-race job sites, for example, payroll sheets indicate that neither free nor enslaved blacks held any skilled or supervisory positions. At one point Rockman even quotes the publisher of a religious magazine who declared that causes are at work in Baltimore in keeping poor families down and that those causes “operate upon the blacks, with nearly double the force, that they do upon the whites.” As for women, even those who worked diligently for long hours, such as the seamstresses, regularly received below average pay. In fact, it was really only through inheritance or marriage could women adequately support themselves. These infrequent instances of obfuscation leaves one to wonder whether race, gender or even some other factor is more important than class in determining one’s lot in life in post-Revolutionary Baltimore. Scraping By is unique when compared with previous works on the political economy of the period and in exhibiting the emergence of a capitalist society in the fledgling republic. Earlier histories were inclined to focus on the financiers and artisans and the roles they played in shaping the new nation and assisting in the advent of any sort of American exceptionalism. Through exposing the economic insecurity of the working classes and the unfair nature of American society in the early republic, Rockman is able to transcend those earlier works. He makes evident the economic opportunities and political prosperity available to those in positions powerful enough to exploit labour. He elucidates the unequal political economy of the era with a narrative which features wage labourers who are caught “between partial self-support and constant and absolute dependence” due to repressive laws and social norms. The odds were constantly weighed against working-class households who teetered on the edge of going bust. An injury, illness, addiction, arrest or unplanned pregnancy could careen a family into the almshouse. Scraping By describes slaves loaned out for work whose wages went directly to their masters, women who were forced into prostitution after oppressive vagrancy laws stopped them from selling goods in the streets, and a lack of a living wage paid to women who worked hard as laundresses or seamstresses. While prosperity and privation came to those engaged in the marketplaces of the early republic, it is by far the latter which befalls the vast majority Baltimoreans in this period. Whether stevedore or sailor, carter or candle huckster, street scraper or slave, wage workers were treated as commodities, repeatedly pushed down and exploited by a society who clearly had the upper hand. They were also mostly ignored by history since. Scraping By changes this and attests to the fact that the history of the working class can be competent but also highly compelling.

  4. 5 out of 5

    Lee Parker

    My grandmother and her mother immigrated from Catania, Sicily in the 1920s and were put to work in Baltimore's ‘slop shops’, places where women sewed cheap ready-to-wear shirts. Apparently my great-grandmother Rosaria was quite good at it, and my preadolescent grandmother carried on the tradition working beside her and thousands of other women in Baltimore’s garment factories making pennies a day. Our family history folds into Rockman’s account of Baltimore’s beginnings, a case study on how an A My grandmother and her mother immigrated from Catania, Sicily in the 1920s and were put to work in Baltimore's ‘slop shops’, places where women sewed cheap ready-to-wear shirts. Apparently my great-grandmother Rosaria was quite good at it, and my preadolescent grandmother carried on the tradition working beside her and thousands of other women in Baltimore’s garment factories making pennies a day. Our family history folds into Rockman’s account of Baltimore’s beginnings, a case study on how an American city was built, on whose backs it grew and at what cost. People of color and women were by far the big losers in the struggle to survive, having little employment options or rights. Women could either piece-sew at home, or whore themselves along the docks of Fells Point. African American families had horrific choices to make in order to survive as Rockman explains in one chilling example ‘parents purchased freedom of a daughter and then immediately bound her to a white employer as a servant in return for the money the family needed to purchase the freedom of a second child’. Scraping By blends all of these complex and often heartbreaking factors into the Baltimore we see today. This is a book I keep at my fingertips, there’s so much to learn from it - it's a resource to understand and appreciate how my ancestors survived and the truth about how poor, often enslaved, labor formed this country.

  5. 4 out of 5

    Zachary

    This is a community study of Baltimore's indigent during the early republic. Rockman is challenging the notion that the early republic was a time of great growth and upward opportunity for people. Baltimore was a unique border city, and employers used a combination of slave and poor white labor to their advantage to fill temporary jobs. Rockman does an excellent job resurrecting the lives of these very poor people, and shows how there was little mobility for these people. Also shows how slavery This is a community study of Baltimore's indigent during the early republic. Rockman is challenging the notion that the early republic was a time of great growth and upward opportunity for people. Baltimore was a unique border city, and employers used a combination of slave and poor white labor to their advantage to fill temporary jobs. Rockman does an excellent job resurrecting the lives of these very poor people, and shows how there was little mobility for these people. Also shows how slavery and free labor could be mixed, and that it was something motivated by profit more than some idea of morality. This book was a huge influence on my MA thesis, and I applied to work with him at Brown. After reading this book in several classes I've found a few problems. First, the early republic was a time of incredible growth and human movement. The free labor that stayed in Baltimore must have been strange, or tied to the place for some reason, because most poor people moved elsewhere until they "made it" or at least gained a competency. Also, contemporary data showing wealth mobility in the US shows healthy mobility outside the top and bottom 5%. Is this bottom 5% a longer trend? If so it is the VERY poor, and certainly not indicative of all poor people.

  6. 5 out of 5

    Ari Odinson

    Look, I'm just really biased about some things and the way Rockman framed certain ideas bothered me. It's not that he did a bad job, it's just I'm really passionate about some Philly things and Philly people. It's not my fault, it's my life. Anyhow, I'm always glad whenever I read about industrial and labor history. Look, I'm just really biased about some things and the way Rockman framed certain ideas bothered me. It's not that he did a bad job, it's just I'm really passionate about some Philly things and Philly people. It's not my fault, it's my life. Anyhow, I'm always glad whenever I read about industrial and labor history.

  7. 5 out of 5

    Olivia

    This is a very detailed account of early 19th century Baltimore. It's interesting how many groups of people are involved in the overall city and how they intertwine. But it's not my favorite topic to read about. I had to for a class. This is a very detailed account of early 19th century Baltimore. It's interesting how many groups of people are involved in the overall city and how they intertwine. But it's not my favorite topic to read about. I had to for a class.

  8. 4 out of 5

    David Bates

    In Scraping By Seth Rockman draws a portrait of the urban underclass in Baltimore in the early decades of the American republic. He argues that socially and economically Baltimore can stand as a relevant case study from which to draw broader conclusions about both place and period; a seaport on international trade lines located at the crossroads of the North and South and a rapidly growing early republic boom town with little colonial heritage. Rockman assembles an account of the casual and coer In Scraping By Seth Rockman draws a portrait of the urban underclass in Baltimore in the early decades of the American republic. He argues that socially and economically Baltimore can stand as a relevant case study from which to draw broader conclusions about both place and period; a seaport on international trade lines located at the crossroads of the North and South and a rapidly growing early republic boom town with little colonial heritage. Rockman assembles an account of the casual and coerced labor of the free, indentured, and enslaved of Baltimore with attention to differences of race, class and gender. The core of his research is broadly drawn from two categories of sources. Print media is used to analyze political and cultural attitudes toward labor and dimensions of poverty within Baltimore, as well as the grittier mechanics of the labor market documented through help wanted ads. Government records in the form of city directories, the federal census, almshouse and penitentiary accounts, court proceedings, petitions and pardons make up a complementary quantitative element. This primary research is supported by secondary scholarship in the subfields of labor, race, women’s, gender and environmental history. The broader point Rockman makes in the examination of the grim prospects of the working poor of early Baltimore hinges on the relationship between labor and capital in the decades of the 19th century market revolution. He argues that the broadening egalitarian prosperity of an American society set free from aristocratic hierarchy was built on a foundation of exploited labor, and that prevailing contemporary ideas of personal responsibility masked systemic coercion. By uniting the accounts of poverty and wealth into a systemic framework of political, economic and social relationships Rockman contends that, “[a]t a moment of great entrepreneurial energy and social mobility, prosperity came to Americans who could best assemble, deploy, and exploit the physical labor of others. The early republic’s economy opened up new possibilities for some Americans precisely because it closed down opportunities for others.”

  9. 4 out of 5

    Ben

    the growth of American capitalism in early Republican Baltimore. Wage labor built the city, and in Baltimore, due to its position between North and South, the population of those 'scraping by' was more complex and more diverse than in most other cities in the nation. Examines the hidden labor of early American Society, slaves working for day wages, women performing domestic work, dredgers cleaning out the harbor, all of whom were too transient, or too poor to be recorded in the census, and whose the growth of American capitalism in early Republican Baltimore. Wage labor built the city, and in Baltimore, due to its position between North and South, the population of those 'scraping by' was more complex and more diverse than in most other cities in the nation. Examines the hidden labor of early American Society, slaves working for day wages, women performing domestic work, dredgers cleaning out the harbor, all of whom were too transient, or too poor to be recorded in the census, and whose stories are generally far less romantic than the artisan republicans of Chants Democratic. "The absence of negotiation, the persistence of coercion, and the disparity in power between those buying labor and those performing it were not imperfections or temporary contradictions in capitalist development, they were the very foundation of capitalism in the early republic."

  10. 5 out of 5

    Emory's Defunct Profile

    Very informative and well-researched, and it doesn't exclude anyone when talking about the early American working class- European immigrants, African-Americans in various stages of freedom and slavery, poor whites, women, etc. While it focuses on worker conditions, it also shows how the American economy developed and became more capitalist and competitive. Some of the worker's rights/living wage issues are very applicable to economics today. The only complaint would be that Rockman isn't a very s Very informative and well-researched, and it doesn't exclude anyone when talking about the early American working class- European immigrants, African-Americans in various stages of freedom and slavery, poor whites, women, etc. While it focuses on worker conditions, it also shows how the American economy developed and became more capitalist and competitive. Some of the worker's rights/living wage issues are very applicable to economics today. The only complaint would be that Rockman isn't a very strong writer. He has a tendency to repeat the same ideas over and over and talk himself in circles. It could have used an editor.

  11. 4 out of 5

    Colleen

    Interesting to see all of the moving parts within an urban environment, and to especially see how the institution of slavery fits in. Also an excellent treatment on the place of free women and children in that complex labor environment. I wasn't that familiar with urban slavery outside of Douglass' Narrative. Interested to read more. Interesting to see all of the moving parts within an urban environment, and to especially see how the institution of slavery fits in. Also an excellent treatment on the place of free women and children in that complex labor environment. I wasn't that familiar with urban slavery outside of Douglass' Narrative. Interested to read more.

  12. 4 out of 5

    Rebecca

    A very academic book on the history and culture of labor in the early American republic. I thought it was well-written and informative. It's not a casual read by any stretch of the imagination. It's very good for its subject. I only gave it a low rating because it's not a book I would read on my own for pleasure, but it's a very good specialized history book. A very academic book on the history and culture of labor in the early American republic. I thought it was well-written and informative. It's not a casual read by any stretch of the imagination. It's very good for its subject. I only gave it a low rating because it's not a book I would read on my own for pleasure, but it's a very good specialized history book.

  13. 5 out of 5

    Zac

    This book makes the broad point that the underclass we see today is not an aberration but an outgrowth of a long tradition in American political economy. The details provide richness rather than boredom. That said, a few quotes are repeated, and lists of legal indemnities for various classes are repeated without added detail. This takes away from the book's professionalism and momentum. This book makes the broad point that the underclass we see today is not an aberration but an outgrowth of a long tradition in American political economy. The details provide richness rather than boredom. That said, a few quotes are repeated, and lists of legal indemnities for various classes are repeated without added detail. This takes away from the book's professionalism and momentum.

  14. 5 out of 5

    Michael Staples

    A very Slow book About the early 1800s Baltimore Maryland.Seth Rockman Repeat himself for most of the book, After he tells you three or four times you finally get the idea. Although it's an informative book, Early wage labor and slave labor exist involved in Baltimore A very Slow book About the early 1800s Baltimore Maryland.Seth Rockman Repeat himself for most of the book, After he tells you three or four times you finally get the idea. Although it's an informative book, Early wage labor and slave labor exist involved in Baltimore

  15. 4 out of 5

    katie

    This is an excellent history of labor. Rockman looks at those at the very bottom: mudscrapers, piece workers, domestic servants, enslaved people, etc. He devotes a lot of space to women and free people of color, making the book well-rounded.

  16. 4 out of 5

    Josh

    solid book about baltimore in the early 19th c. If you already know that slavery and capitalism are compatible then not spectacular.

  17. 4 out of 5

    Matthew Linton

    Labor history at its best. Manages to be informative without being dogmatic.

  18. 4 out of 5

    Shannon Mclean

  19. 5 out of 5

    Tony

  20. 5 out of 5

    Emily Davis

  21. 5 out of 5

    mera

  22. 5 out of 5

    Nathanael Mickelson

  23. 5 out of 5

    Andrew Prazeres

  24. 4 out of 5

    Kent

  25. 4 out of 5

    Shauna

  26. 4 out of 5

    Alyssa

  27. 5 out of 5

    Lorraine Herbon

  28. 4 out of 5

    Brigitte Dale

  29. 5 out of 5

    Evan Thomas

  30. 4 out of 5

    Andrew Detch

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