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William R. Polk provides an informative, readable history of a country which is moving quickly toward becoming the dominant power and culture of the Middle East. A former member of the State Department's Policy Planning Council, Polk describes a country and a history misunderstood by many in the West. While Iranians chafe under the yolk of their current leaders, they also William R. Polk provides an informative, readable history of a country which is moving quickly toward becoming the dominant power and culture of the Middle East. A former member of the State Department's Policy Planning Council, Polk describes a country and a history misunderstood by many in the West. While Iranians chafe under the yolk of their current leaders, they also have bitter memories of generations of British, Russian and American espionage, invasion, and dominance. There are important lessons to be learned from the past, and Polk teases them out of a long and rich history and shows that it is not just now, but for decades to come that an understanding of Iran will be essential to American safety and well-being.


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William R. Polk provides an informative, readable history of a country which is moving quickly toward becoming the dominant power and culture of the Middle East. A former member of the State Department's Policy Planning Council, Polk describes a country and a history misunderstood by many in the West. While Iranians chafe under the yolk of their current leaders, they also William R. Polk provides an informative, readable history of a country which is moving quickly toward becoming the dominant power and culture of the Middle East. A former member of the State Department's Policy Planning Council, Polk describes a country and a history misunderstood by many in the West. While Iranians chafe under the yolk of their current leaders, they also have bitter memories of generations of British, Russian and American espionage, invasion, and dominance. There are important lessons to be learned from the past, and Polk teases them out of a long and rich history and shows that it is not just now, but for decades to come that an understanding of Iran will be essential to American safety and well-being.

30 review for Understanding Iran: Everything You Need to Know, From Persia to the Islamic Republic, From Cyrus to Khamenei

  1. 4 out of 5

    TG Lin

    這本書名很長的《伊朗︰被消滅的帝國,被出賣的出權,被低估的革命,被詛咒的石油,以及今日的——伊朗》,由曾經擔任美國政府顧問職的「威廉.波爾克(William Polk)」所著,中譯本由「光.現出版社」所出版,算是書市中專述伊朗歷史的幾本書之一。與我在今年四月讀的由 Parker 所著的圖文並茂的《波斯人》一書比起來,這本的「入門性」比較低,而且某些古史論述有些瑕疵。但由於本書作者的背景之故,因此本書的最大價值,應該就是以一位曾經在現場參與事件者的身份所留下來的史料吧。   每個現代國家都有其自身的歷史脈絡與特色。以伊朗人的觀點,從中古時代薩法維王朝的塑造,形成了今日伊朗在西亞地區成為一個以宗教(什葉派穆斯林)為主體所構成的國家,比其周圍相鄰的阿拉伯土豪遍地的情況並不相同。但近現代以來,由於英蘇兩國所玩的那場「大博奕」,使得伊朗在現代化的路上處處感到「悲情」不已(所以我們島民別再自以為有多麼地悲情了……)。更殘酷的,是伊朗巴列維王朝兩任國王,為了擺脫英蘇兩國的影響,引進第三國「美國」來加以制衡。沒想到在二戰之後,「英波石油公司/英國石油公司」退去,美國人卻從原來的崇高道德的角色,反過來成了獨 這本書名很長的《伊朗︰被消滅的帝國,被出賣的出權,被低估的革命,被詛咒的石油,以及今日的——伊朗》,由曾經擔任美國政府顧問職的「威廉.波爾克(William Polk)」所著,中譯本由「光.現出版社」所出版,算是書市中專述伊朗歷史的幾本書之一。與我在今年四月讀的由 Parker 所著的圖文並茂的《波斯人》一書比起來,這本的「入門性」比較低,而且某些古史論述有些瑕疵。但由於本書作者的背景之故,因此本書的最大價值,應該就是以一位曾經在現場參與事件者的身份所留下來的史料吧。   每個現代國家都有其自身的歷史脈絡與特色。以伊朗人的觀點,從中古時代薩法維王朝的塑造,形成了今日伊朗在西亞地區成為一個以宗教(什葉派穆斯林)為主體所構成的國家,比其周圍相鄰的阿拉伯土豪遍地的情況並不相同。但近現代以來,由於英蘇兩國所玩的那場「大博奕」,使得伊朗在現代化的路上處處感到「悲情」不已(所以我們島民別再自以為有多麼地悲情了……)。更殘酷的,是伊朗巴列維王朝兩任國王,為了擺脫英蘇兩國的影響,引進第三國「美國」來加以制衡。沒想到在二戰之後,「英波石油公司/英國石油公司」退去,美國人卻從原來的崇高道德的角色,反過來成了獨自控制該國的「太上皇」,並一手主導了將那位阻擋現代石油公司獲利的世俗總理「摩薩台」給搞下台的勾當。也難怪在伊朗伊斯蘭革命之後,神權共和國的當政者們,有多麼地痛恨這個偽善的「美利堅合眾國」了。   本書作者的立場,對現代伊朗屬於「溫和派」。但不曉得是否為同僚或自己而諱,雖然作者明白地寫到 CIA 搞掉摩薩台一事,但在其後 1979 年的伊朗革命之後,美國人對伊朗所進行的干涉似乎未多加著墨,而放在大阿亞圖拉何梅尼如何鬥掉他的幾個政敵。比如像兩伊戰爭怎麼爆發,美國軍艦在波斯灣的動作,作者多以一兩個名詞輕描淡寫地帶過。因此本書雖然在許多書評中認為「美國進入伊朗」的這一章節最有價值,但若以我自己的觀點,似乎只打了半場好球而已……   可以一讀的書。   #最近本書好像出了第二版用來罵川普吧

  2. 5 out of 5

    Vicky Hunt

    An Eye-Opening Look from the Vantage Point of the Middle Eastern World While I could not agree with everything I read, and one or two things have since been proven to be incorrect political theories, I found this book to provide a maximum amount of information in a minimum amount of time. And, it was an enjoyable history covering a vast time frame. It certainly put Iran in perspective and connected the loose ends between Darius of Persia and the Shahs of Iran. My background is quite lacking in th An Eye-Opening Look from the Vantage Point of the Middle Eastern World While I could not agree with everything I read, and one or two things have since been proven to be incorrect political theories, I found this book to provide a maximum amount of information in a minimum amount of time. And, it was an enjoyable history covering a vast time frame. It certainly put Iran in perspective and connected the loose ends between Darius of Persia and the Shahs of Iran. My background is quite lacking in the history of the Middle East. This was certainly the work to begin my quest for the past in all of Asia. Probably the time lapse since the book was written is one draw back in choosing this book, since it is not current. Because of that I first chose to read Iran Rising: The Survival and Future of the Islamic Republic by Amin Saikal. It seemed to offer more of a modern perspective. But, that book was so dry and boring, and politically one-sided that I quickly discarded that and bought this one in both the Kindle and the Audible for whisper-sync. This was a good choice, and it more than makes up for the datedness of the writing by the foundational history it provides. If you only read one book about Iran, this may be the book you should choose. It gives a more rounded perspective of all political entities involved in the centuries and decades of struggle that is Iran. It also gives quite a bit of info on Iranian culture. I read this for my stop in Iran on my Journey Around the World in 2019-2020. My next stop is Northeastward into Turkmenistan, where I am now reading a very unusual story called The Revenge of the Foxes by Ak Welspar on Kindle.

  3. 4 out of 5

    Rebecca Graf

    Attempting to understand a culture of today cannot be limited to just this generation or even the generation before that. To fully understand any culture, the researcher has to go back to the beginning and examine the history from that moment until today. In regard to the rich culture of Iran, William R. Polk attempts to do just that in his book, Understanding Iran: Everything You Need to Know, From Persia to the Islamic Republic, From Cyrus to Ahmadinejad. Polk starts as far back as in history a Attempting to understand a culture of today cannot be limited to just this generation or even the generation before that. To fully understand any culture, the researcher has to go back to the beginning and examine the history from that moment until today. In regard to the rich culture of Iran, William R. Polk attempts to do just that in his book, Understanding Iran: Everything You Need to Know, From Persia to the Islamic Republic, From Cyrus to Ahmadinejad. Polk starts as far back as in history as possible for Iran. From there he discusses the cultural, ethnic, and national identity of being Iranian. It is not just a matter of descending from those that lived there for generations. It is not just claiming a home there. It is much more intricate. The book explores the history of rulers and the impact each new wave of leadership brought upon the people who lived in the region known now as Iran. The see-saw of strong ruler with that of weak ones kept the nation in turmoil and laid the foundation of much of the problems of today. The book dives further into the European influence, revolutionary veins, and the explosion of that revolutionary wave leading to a unique Iran of today with strained ties to the world around it. The author sets out to understand the Iran of today by looking into the past starting with the original Persians. What most of the world knows about Iran is based on the struggles over the nation and the resources it possesses. Polk strove to get beyond the United States/Iran issue or the Britain/Iran issue and discover “what it means when we speak of Iran and Iranians.” He wanted to get to the heart of the people and culture. Understanding Iran is a very comprehensive book that does not start during the Persian and Greek wars. It does not start with the end of World War I. It starts at the beginning to get a more complete picture of the subject at hand: Iran and its people. The fact that the book is so encompassing and looks beyond stereotypes makes it a valuable resource. Polk does an excellent job of taking all aspects of the Iranian world (culture, history, and political) and bringing into a logical and understandable kaleidoscope. He lays out clearly how Iran’s past is not something to be swept under the rug as it is “directly remembered by modern Iranians because it is being constantly reinforced” through its own cultural activities, its politics, and its interaction between the rest of the world. As Polk desired to reveal more of the true Iran and everything that influenced what it has become today, the result was success. He states in an easy to read manner how Iran did not live in a bubble. The world within the boundaries and the world without had huge impacts on what one sees if they walked the streets of the Iranian cities and villages today. He clearly shows how the past is the present redefined and matured whether it is seen in a good or a bad light. There is no doubt what Iran is. Misconceptions are easily tossed aside as Polk examines the evidence in an objective and concise manner. The book could easily have been three times the size it was published at, but Polk wrote in a manner that was not lengthy yet to the point. He takes a country that “has had one of the world’s richest and most fascinating historical experiences” and gives the reader a glimpse into that past without having to spend weeks reading volumes of material. The book is set up in a manner that can be read just to learn more and not as an academic manner. This is beneficial in encouraging the learning of the history and culture of Iran while not limiting it to those in the upper educational classrooms. It is also laid out for easy search if one is using it for academic purposes with a well laid out index and an extensive notes sections as well as bibliography. The book alone would make a valuable resource tool, but it also helps the eager learner to explore further than the book in their hands. Missing from the book was any additional material in the form of maps, charts, or images. The book is not designed too much for the visual learner. The layout of the chapter is not broken out in sections with headings for easy reading retention or for research. Much is absent that would help enhance the book or bring about a more in depth learning. The visual reinforcement is not present in this book.

  4. 4 out of 5

    Nadia

    Fantastisk bog! Virkelig god beskrivelse af Iran gennem tiden, inklusiv de horrible overgreb landet har været igennem først fra Storbritannien og senere fra USA. Det eneste der trækker ned ved bogen, er at William Polk ikke er typen der sætter sit lys under en skæppe - jeg har ikke en stor paratviden om Iran, så det var svært at forholde sig kritisk til hans beskrivelse af USAs diplomati under hans egen tid i administrationen. Min umiddelbare tanke er, at han har travlt ved håndvasken under dét k Fantastisk bog! Virkelig god beskrivelse af Iran gennem tiden, inklusiv de horrible overgreb landet har været igennem først fra Storbritannien og senere fra USA. Det eneste der trækker ned ved bogen, er at William Polk ikke er typen der sætter sit lys under en skæppe - jeg har ikke en stor paratviden om Iran, så det var svært at forholde sig kritisk til hans beskrivelse af USAs diplomati under hans egen tid i administrationen. Min umiddelbare tanke er, at han har travlt ved håndvasken under dét kapitel...

  5. 4 out of 5

    Wendy

    I've just come back from two weeks travelling in Iran . I would highly recommend this book which is so well written, covering the complexities of a long and fascinating history and of recent events with an emphasis on American Iranian relationships . It was for me a " cant put down book " which is unusual for a non fiction . Iran is such a fascinating and important country . I've just come back from two weeks travelling in Iran . I would highly recommend this book which is so well written, covering the complexities of a long and fascinating history and of recent events with an emphasis on American Iranian relationships . It was for me a " cant put down book " which is unusual for a non fiction . Iran is such a fascinating and important country .

  6. 4 out of 5

    Amit

    We live in an era when the American government portrays Iran as a threat to the world, as a member of the Axis of evil, as theocracy in which every Friday evening millions chant, "Death to America" in houses of worship, a country with which it is impossible to have normal relations. Is this all true? and if it is partially true, then what lies behind it? The author argues that we need to understand what has happened in Iran over the last 2,500 years to understand what is happening today, for thi We live in an era when the American government portrays Iran as a threat to the world, as a member of the Axis of evil, as theocracy in which every Friday evening millions chant, "Death to America" in houses of worship, a country with which it is impossible to have normal relations. Is this all true? and if it is partially true, then what lies behind it? The author argues that we need to understand what has happened in Iran over the last 2,500 years to understand what is happening today, for this history lives in the collective subconsciousness of Iranian society. He starts with the pre-Islamic era when Persian power extended all the way to the Mediterranean and when the Persians believed in Zoroastrianism. He then describes how the Persian empire decayed and was run over by Arabs under the banner of Islam, Persia adapted. Its people converted to Islam voluntarily (this is an interesting insight, that the Arabs were not proselytizing), but they created their own version of Islam - Shia - and how Shia Islam builds on Zoroastrianism. He then describes how Shia Islam has been a central tenet of Iran for over thousand years, and what sets Iran apart from rest of the Islamic world. Interestingly, Polk makes a case that throughout history, Iran's rulers have required the consent of its people to stay in power. It society has different power centers - Shia religious leaders, the military class represented by tribes and militias in the past, and merchants - and these power centers have competed for power. Over centuries, the ruling regime obtained the people's consent in different ways - by winning wars, by establishing royal lineage, or based on religion, sometimes all of these. According to Polk, even in the Islamic Republic, elections are relatively fair, and the political leadership is accountable to the people.

  7. 5 out of 5

    Nathan

    While I can't say now that I necessarily "understand" Iran, I did learn a lot from reading this book. It primarily tells the history of the country from ancient times to modern in the first four chapters. The next two chapters focus on recent history, how the current political system developed and America's relationship with Iran. In an afterward, the author, who was a member of the Kennedy administration, points out flaws in the methodology for policy development and makes policy suggestions, s While I can't say now that I necessarily "understand" Iran, I did learn a lot from reading this book. It primarily tells the history of the country from ancient times to modern in the first four chapters. The next two chapters focus on recent history, how the current political system developed and America's relationship with Iran. In an afterward, the author, who was a member of the Kennedy administration, points out flaws in the methodology for policy development and makes policy suggestions, some of which seem a bit unrealistic like nuclear disarmament in the Middle East. The author acknowledges the seeming unfeasibility of this but thinks it should be a long term goal. The book was written in 2009, ending with many things still up in the air about what could happen.

  8. 5 out of 5

    Danny

    An adequate read. I found it worrying that he mislabled Qahtani and his followers as Iranians, when they were Saudis. Its a short book that covers nearly 4,000 years of history so you're only getting a survey of the history. Polk did serve in the Kennedy administration and worked on Iran so he is a primary source on some of the events covered in this book. An adequate read. I found it worrying that he mislabled Qahtani and his followers as Iranians, when they were Saudis. Its a short book that covers nearly 4,000 years of history so you're only getting a survey of the history. Polk did serve in the Kennedy administration and worked on Iran so he is a primary source on some of the events covered in this book.

  9. 4 out of 5

    Keith Wheeles

    Timely. Well-written history with good detail on modern developments. Drops off at implementation of JCPOA, but excellent coverage up to that point.

  10. 4 out of 5

    Karina

    A readable and engaging potted history. A useful and objective insight into Iranian thinking.

  11. 4 out of 5

    Mary Graves

    I picked up this book when I read the news that we might bomb Syria -- which I felt a very slippery slope into a possible World War III in the very volatile Middle East. More and more stories stated that this might be a "proxy" war with Iran and I came upon William Polk's "Understanding Iran" -- a history of Iran from the beginning human settlements to the take over of the U.S. Embassy in 1979 -- with comments on the current situation of Iran exploring the use of nuclear power amidst the Arab Sp I picked up this book when I read the news that we might bomb Syria -- which I felt a very slippery slope into a possible World War III in the very volatile Middle East. More and more stories stated that this might be a "proxy" war with Iran and I came upon William Polk's "Understanding Iran" -- a history of Iran from the beginning human settlements to the take over of the U.S. Embassy in 1979 -- with comments on the current situation of Iran exploring the use of nuclear power amidst the Arab Spring. My goal was to at least try to understand the history, culture and perspective of a people before going to war with them in order to understand them better. Hence, it FASCINATED me. Not a huge book, William Polk goes through the history of Iran in a succinct fashion with an eye to trying to understand their perspective through different periods of history while taking into account the changes in their culture. I learned quite a bit -- and now understand why people in military history still talk about Tamerlane. I had heard his name. That was one of many invasions of Iran -- and there were, indeed, MANY. This was the third of the Mongol Invasions: Tamerlane. One tribe fought back against Tamerlane and, in response, he obliterated their entire country: their culture, their entire infrastructure and built pyramids of skulls around the country. It was such a complete devastation that 100 years later, Marco Polo and an esteemed Arab historian traveled through Iran and reported the devastation was so long-lasting, that the surviving people were -- still 100 years later -- just groveling to subsist. I feel this is a must read for everyone -- and feel we should do our best to understand each other -- at a minimum before we blow each other up.

  12. 5 out of 5

    Bryce

    Polk provides a good overview of the history of Iran with particularly interesting coverage of US-Iran relations after WW II to the present. Although the first part of the book might be a little tough to wade through, the chapters covering more recent history provide an important background to understanding the current situation in Iran as well as important insights into the Middle East in general. I find 2 flaws in the book: 1. Polk is unable to present the facts without making political jabs (t Polk provides a good overview of the history of Iran with particularly interesting coverage of US-Iran relations after WW II to the present. Although the first part of the book might be a little tough to wade through, the chapters covering more recent history provide an important background to understanding the current situation in Iran as well as important insights into the Middle East in general. I find 2 flaws in the book: 1. Polk is unable to present the facts without making political jabs (thinly veiled if at all), 2. He seems to bend over backwards to try and understand things from the Iranian perspective, a noble idea, but in this case it seems to distort things a bit. I would have preferred a more straightforward presentation of the facts minus the political jabs and the over empathizing. Nevertheless, I found this a useful read and enjoyed especially Polk's firsthand accounts of his own experiences dealing with the Iranian government (the Shah) in the 1970's.

  13. 5 out of 5

    Jeanne

    I picked up this book because I knew the author (as a statesmen) and I am embarrassingly ignorant of Persian culture and history. The book is an easy read though not a page turner. Polk does a good job of using history to build toward his thesis that Iran's culture does not point towards conquest but defense. The ancient history part is fascinating and the recent history part (the cold war "domino" effect on foreign policy, the Iran/Contra affair, the CIAs role in overthrowing Mossadegh) helped I picked up this book because I knew the author (as a statesmen) and I am embarrassingly ignorant of Persian culture and history. The book is an easy read though not a page turner. Polk does a good job of using history to build toward his thesis that Iran's culture does not point towards conquest but defense. The ancient history part is fascinating and the recent history part (the cold war "domino" effect on foreign policy, the Iran/Contra affair, the CIAs role in overthrowing Mossadegh) helped bringing these issues into context for me. The last chapter wraps everything up into a nice neat package and I thought - heck, I could have just read the last chapter! But since then, its funny how pieces of this book have popped up in other areas. The coup was mentioned in the Economist last week, the "40 days of mourning" was important in the very next novel I read. So while the book took some effort to get through, it was definitely worth it in the long run.

  14. 4 out of 5

    Scriptor Ignotus

    A useful overview of Iran's history and some of its major themes. It is not comprehensive by any means, but it succeeds at its stated goal of covering the basic outline of Iranian history and exploring some of its implications for today. The greatest drawback of the book is the author's occasional tendency to make some nakedly political statements; perhaps most shockingly when he claims that Darius I was history's "first neoconservative." No, he wasn't. I wasn't surprised to learn that Mr. Polk A useful overview of Iran's history and some of its major themes. It is not comprehensive by any means, but it succeeds at its stated goal of covering the basic outline of Iranian history and exploring some of its implications for today. The greatest drawback of the book is the author's occasional tendency to make some nakedly political statements; perhaps most shockingly when he claims that Darius I was history's "first neoconservative." No, he wasn't. I wasn't surprised to learn that Mr. Polk was an advisor for Dennis Kucinich's 2008 presidential campaign. The bias isn't overwhelming, but one always senses a touch of the author's personal views in his narration. That being said, Polk's credentials, and the gross lack of knowledge regarding Iran on the part of most Americans (this one included) make it necessary for us to read up on Iran, and this book is a great place to start.

  15. 4 out of 5

    Julie Ershadi

    It's an OK primer on the country, better for less controversial ancient and medieval history, but lacking in current affairs: SO BIASED in its overview of the disputed 2009 presidential elections, basically asks the reader to believe that Ahmadinejad probably really was elected fair and square. Doesn't even entertain the idea that Khamenei could've benefitted from rigging the vote, implies instead that the opposition was full of sore losers. The book is also riddled with typos and other signs of It's an OK primer on the country, better for less controversial ancient and medieval history, but lacking in current affairs: SO BIASED in its overview of the disputed 2009 presidential elections, basically asks the reader to believe that Ahmadinejad probably really was elected fair and square. Doesn't even entertain the idea that Khamenei could've benefitted from rigging the vote, implies instead that the opposition was full of sore losers. The book is also riddled with typos and other signs of subpar editing, such as chronological confusion when discussing some of the medieval dynasties. Still, it's a pretty good read -- not too dry -- and definitely does help you to understand Iran's political, social and economic history better.

  16. 4 out of 5

    Shanthanu

    A surprisingly honest and candid introduction to modern Iran and Iran-America relations, coming from a Washington insider. My only objection to this was the (in my opinion) excessive stress on trying to look at things from `an Iranian cultural context', which gives it a sort of neo-orientalist feel, when I think most issues can be well understood on fairly universal terms. To his credit the author admits that, and makes it abundantly clear what he eels about the West's role in thwarting democrac A surprisingly honest and candid introduction to modern Iran and Iran-America relations, coming from a Washington insider. My only objection to this was the (in my opinion) excessive stress on trying to look at things from `an Iranian cultural context', which gives it a sort of neo-orientalist feel, when I think most issues can be well understood on fairly universal terms. To his credit the author admits that, and makes it abundantly clear what he eels about the West's role in thwarting democracy in Iran. Obviously, no one book can sum up such a vast topic, but this is a good initial introduction to ancient and modern Iranian history.

  17. 5 out of 5

    Dashaun From

    This book really opened my eyes to the rich history of Iran. Ironically since finishing the book I've met a number of people from the country. I thought Polk did a great job capturing the political and cultural melting pot of Iran. Seeing how European nations along with the United States helped shape the country into what it is today only makes me want to dive deeper into the history books. There have to be other civilizations with equal if not more intriguing histories. I highly recommend this This book really opened my eyes to the rich history of Iran. Ironically since finishing the book I've met a number of people from the country. I thought Polk did a great job capturing the political and cultural melting pot of Iran. Seeing how European nations along with the United States helped shape the country into what it is today only makes me want to dive deeper into the history books. There have to be other civilizations with equal if not more intriguing histories. I highly recommend this for anyone who is interested in Asiatic history.

  18. 4 out of 5

    Jenifer

    I am between a 3 and a 4. I thought it was a great introduction to the history and current affairs of Iran. The book really picked up in the second half, so be sure to keep reading. While there is a lot that is only briefly discussed, it would have been impossible to go into full detail on all of Iranian history and culture in this all book. I would view it more as a stepping stone into a full understanding of Iran and our relations with the country.

  19. 4 out of 5

    Chimezie Ogbuji

    Excellent, laid-back writing style, covering historical material crucial to understanding Persian gulf and Shia-Sunni geopolitical dynamics.

  20. 5 out of 5

    Roland

    Dry in the beginning unless you like historical details, dynasties, etc. VERY interesting second half that describes Iran from WW I to 2010.

  21. 4 out of 5

    Abbas Djavadi

    A superb historical and cultural background to understand today's Iran A superb historical and cultural background to understand today's Iran

  22. 4 out of 5

    Angie.casper

  23. 5 out of 5

    Mohamed Syed

  24. 4 out of 5

    Viknes Muthiah

  25. 5 out of 5

    Gail Thompson

  26. 4 out of 5

    Neda

  27. 4 out of 5

    Jon

  28. 4 out of 5

    Elisabeth Simao

  29. 5 out of 5

    Tom Dykstra

  30. 5 out of 5

    Shirin Lavasani

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