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Who Wrote the New Testament?: The Making of the Christian Myth

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In this groundbreaking and controversial book, Burton Mack brilliantly exposes how the Gospels are fictional mythologies created by different communities for various purposes and are only distantly related to the actual historical Jesus. Mack's innovative scholarship, which boldly challenges traditional Christian understanding, will change the way you approach the New Testa In this groundbreaking and controversial book, Burton Mack brilliantly exposes how the Gospels are fictional mythologies created by different communities for various purposes and are only distantly related to the actual historical Jesus. Mack's innovative scholarship, which boldly challenges traditional Christian understanding, will change the way you approach the New Testament and think about how Christianity arose. The clarity of Mack's prose and the intelligent pursuit of his subject make compelling reading. Mack's investigation of the various groups and strands of the early Christian community, out of which were generated the texts of Christianity's first anthology of religious literature, makes sense of a topic that has been confusing.


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In this groundbreaking and controversial book, Burton Mack brilliantly exposes how the Gospels are fictional mythologies created by different communities for various purposes and are only distantly related to the actual historical Jesus. Mack's innovative scholarship, which boldly challenges traditional Christian understanding, will change the way you approach the New Testa In this groundbreaking and controversial book, Burton Mack brilliantly exposes how the Gospels are fictional mythologies created by different communities for various purposes and are only distantly related to the actual historical Jesus. Mack's innovative scholarship, which boldly challenges traditional Christian understanding, will change the way you approach the New Testament and think about how Christianity arose. The clarity of Mack's prose and the intelligent pursuit of his subject make compelling reading. Mack's investigation of the various groups and strands of the early Christian community, out of which were generated the texts of Christianity's first anthology of religious literature, makes sense of a topic that has been confusing.

30 review for Who Wrote the New Testament?: The Making of the Christian Myth

  1. 5 out of 5

    Sarah

    This was an excellent book and I learned a great deal from it. It goes into the history of early Christianity and the various sects and then discusses who wrote the New Testament (we don't really know, but we know for sure that it was not written by who it is accredited to, except some of the letters of Paul) and why it is the way it is. some of the things in this book were really surprising – such as the fact that the early Jesus followers did not believe in his divinity or in his resurrection. This was an excellent book and I learned a great deal from it. It goes into the history of early Christianity and the various sects and then discusses who wrote the New Testament (we don't really know, but we know for sure that it was not written by who it is accredited to, except some of the letters of Paul) and why it is the way it is. some of the things in this book were really surprising – such as the fact that the early Jesus followers did not believe in his divinity or in his resurrection. Those doctrines were added later – I thought that was very interesting that surprised me a lot. Christianity as it is known today read as it was known in the Middle Ages was completely different than the way it was in the beginning. There were so many competing sects, the Gnostics, the Jesus cults, etc.it also discussed why the Bible is the way it is – how the doctrines that were developed for responses to what was actually going on among the different congregations. For example, it says that Paul developed the whole theory of atoning grace because he needed tomake peace between Jewish and Gentile followers of Jesus, the Jewish people were saying that the Gentiles needed to be circumcised, which was causing a huge schism between them. In order to ameliorate this conflict, Paul came up with the fact that there was a new covenant, and that Jesus had put people into a new level of grace where they no longer needed to be circumcised to follow the Jewish laws. The book also discussed how different writers of the Bible had different views on Christianity and what the truth was – they emphasize different things, and sometimes contradicted one another. This is an excellent book for anyone who's interested in the history of Christianity or in the Bible and why and how was written. It is extremely informative but also easy to read and understand. The only people who won't benefit from this book are hard-line Christian fundamentalists who will refuse to believe what they are reading because they feel that the Bible is infallible and deny the fact that it was written 50-150 years after Jesus died (or even later)

  2. 4 out of 5

    Pvw

    I was advised this book in Derren Brown's Tricks Of The Mind, where he claims that he started reading it as an christian agnostic and laid it down as an atheist. That sounded nice! The book doesn't deliver completely, I think there are better options if you want to see someone wiping the floor with religion. In fact, reading Holy Bible: King James Version itself is probably the best choice to get a clear idea of the load of sadistic and patriottic self delusion it contains. But let us return to M I was advised this book in Derren Brown's Tricks Of The Mind, where he claims that he started reading it as an christian agnostic and laid it down as an atheist. That sounded nice! The book doesn't deliver completely, I think there are better options if you want to see someone wiping the floor with religion. In fact, reading Holy Bible: King James Version itself is probably the best choice to get a clear idea of the load of sadistic and patriottic self delusion it contains. But let us return to Mack. He does a good job in showing how the preachings of some historical Jesus figure gave rise to a small cult of followers, who all had different interpretations of their master's sayings. Instrumental in the rise of Christianity was the Jew Paul, who at first opposed non-jews becoming a christian but then realised that allowing the gentiles to be followers as well, was the key point in making the movement a success. He wrote his famous letters advocating that view to the different Jesus communities and Christ cults that had emerged. Also, some later letters were attributed to him after his death, just as what happened to the evangelists. Mack clearly shows that attributing a large body of text produced by a group of followers to one single, mythical author, was a widely spread practice in hellenistic times. Historically, one can date the production of the gospels somewhere between the first and second century. The 'official' gospels are by no means the eyewitness accounts they are supposed to be, but more the point of view of a particular group of followers who made sure to work their own agendas into the main focus of the gospel in question. Whereas the early Jesus teachings had no bearings on the Jewish tradition, their Torah was twisted and turned and reinterpreted during the first centuries of Christianity, and the gospels were made to match it, so that finally the Jewish tradition could be adopted by Christianity. The Messiah-idea and the legacy of King David were very artificially arm wrestled to point towards the Jesus figure, who by that time bore little resemblance to the historical man he once was. It is hard to believe even then that anyone would fall for such an obvious and convoluted construction, but two billion Christians today sadly prove otherwise. The good about Mack is that he proves his point in a detailed, philological way, but the bad is also that he makes his point so academically. The lay out of the book is pure boredom, with not a single illustration, no line spaces and hardly any titles in between. It is just pure text, without any humour or literary aspiration. I think that even in a serious work, one can make a slight effort to present one's ideas in an agreeable manner. Burton L. Mack never bothers. So, all in all it is a book with valuable insights, but absolutely no fun to read!

  3. 5 out of 5

    Lee Holz

    The best of the several books I've read on the subject, an analytical, scholarly historian's take on the first two centuries of our era with particular emphasis on the documentary record.

  4. 5 out of 5

    David

    You mean it wasn't faxed down directly from God to the apostles?

  5. 5 out of 5

    Beth Kakuma-Depew

    Truely amazing and ground-breaking. For those who have no problem with the term "Christian Myth"

  6. 4 out of 5

    Dave

    Absolute brilliant insight into the history of Israel during the inter-testamental period and the history of the writing of the New Testament. Some of the dates he offers have been updated since the publication of this book in 1995, but the basic ideas are solid.

  7. 4 out of 5

    Zach Christensen

    This book was mediocre. I have heard some people refer to this book as “cutting edge scholarship.” I have no idea where they would get that impression. There are no footnotes. Skeptical assumptions about the development of the Q document are asserted as fact. The dates he assigns to the Gospels are at best, fringe, and at worst just conveniently chosen for no other reason than to support his assumptions. Mack essentially claims that Jesus wasn’t Jewish (What? Then why was he in conflict with his This book was mediocre. I have heard some people refer to this book as “cutting edge scholarship.” I have no idea where they would get that impression. There are no footnotes. Skeptical assumptions about the development of the Q document are asserted as fact. The dates he assigns to the Gospels are at best, fringe, and at worst just conveniently chosen for no other reason than to support his assumptions. Mack essentially claims that Jesus wasn’t Jewish (What? Then why was he in conflict with his Jewish contemporaries?) and we can’t know if Jesus was crucified, so he may as well have died in a car accident in Nevada. Thus, Jesus wasn’t Jewish, wasn’t crucified, and is virtually unknowable. That all sounds like pure madness to me. I don’t really care if you think he was “the Son of God,” but there are a number of things that we can be pretty confident about regarding Jesus from a non-religious historical perspective (he was a Galilean Rabbi, he was executed on a Roman cross, he taught about the Kingdom of God, he was baptized by John the Baptist... you can affirm all of those things and not have to be religious in any capacity). Mack’s confidence in the cynic sage thesis is also overwhelming. There were some helpful sections, so this book was not a complete waste. But it just did not wow me. Nothing was groundbreaking for me. I’d encourage Marcus Borg, John Crossan, or Bart Ehrman if you are looking for more nuanced approaches in critical studies of the New Testament.

  8. 5 out of 5

    Jc

    An interesting study of the origins of the writings that were later compiled into the group known as the christian "New Testament." The author, rightly so, describes these writings as fictional mythologies and discusses the social, political, and philosophical differences in the populations from which these texts arose. Funny – I read much of this in coffee houses where I would try to keep its title away from others, knowing it could lead to awkward conversations, but people kept noticing it any An interesting study of the origins of the writings that were later compiled into the group known as the christian "New Testament." The author, rightly so, describes these writings as fictional mythologies and discusses the social, political, and philosophical differences in the populations from which these texts arose. Funny – I read much of this in coffee houses where I would try to keep its title away from others, knowing it could lead to awkward conversations, but people kept noticing it anyway. Invariably they would ask, "so, who DID write the bible" (meaning what individuals). I tried to explain each time that no, the title refers to what groups, not which individuals, authored the letters, gospels, etc., and what movements, beliefs, and philosophies affected their writings. This just seemed to confuse people. My suggestion? If you are going to attempt to read this in a public place, either be prepared for some wacko conversations, or use a school-book style book cover. :-) Back to the book -- if you are the type that is interested in the history and origins of christianity, but will not go into hysterics if it is described as based on mythology and politics, not on reality, then this is a book for you. Rather dense, and in a smaller font than necessary, but if you can adjust your eyes, Mack packs this short work with a lot of scholarly information.

  9. 5 out of 5

    Paul Dinger

    My Lenten thing this year was to read more about the Bible. This is my third Lenten book. While a lot of the ground of this book supplied the groundwork for Zealot (Aslan lists another of Mack's books on this subject)it was in no way any type of rehashing. It wasn't what I was looking for, I wanted to find out how the Bible came to be, and this didn't answer those questions exactly, I wasn't totally disappointed and did learn a great deal about the people and politics involved. This is a great b My Lenten thing this year was to read more about the Bible. This is my third Lenten book. While a lot of the ground of this book supplied the groundwork for Zealot (Aslan lists another of Mack's books on this subject)it was in no way any type of rehashing. It wasn't what I was looking for, I wanted to find out how the Bible came to be, and this didn't answer those questions exactly, I wasn't totally disappointed and did learn a great deal about the people and politics involved. This is a great book even for the layman such as myself about the history of the Old Testament.

  10. 5 out of 5

    Eoin

    Disappointed with this book, in large part due to the misleading title. the question of who wrote the New Testament is left as a side issue, typically a sentence or two on a particular book like 'we don't know who wrote this or where but it may have been of Aegean origin'. Rather it is an attempt at deconstruction of the New Testament. All well and good if you are looking for a dry literary analysis of the New Testament, but not be recommended for those seeking to learn about the history of the Disappointed with this book, in large part due to the misleading title. the question of who wrote the New Testament is left as a side issue, typically a sentence or two on a particular book like 'we don't know who wrote this or where but it may have been of Aegean origin'. Rather it is an attempt at deconstruction of the New Testament. All well and good if you are looking for a dry literary analysis of the New Testament, but not be recommended for those seeking to learn about the history of the bible

  11. 5 out of 5

    Paul Marin

    A book about the origins of the gospels and books in the New Testament and the perspectives of the individual writers. Explains why the gospels were written the way they were and the angle the authors were coming from when writing them. The typeset is small and if it had been set in a larger type, the book would have been twice as long, but much easier to read.

  12. 4 out of 5

    Adam

    Could not finish. Not written for a casual consumer. Some good information from what I could tell, although the author writes with a smug assurance that I find grating. He makes no attempt to provide evidence (what that evidence would be admittedly I don't know) backing his statements.

  13. 5 out of 5

    Meredith

    Recommend for everyone curious about who came up with these crazy ideas anyway. He's a really good writer.

  14. 4 out of 5

    Nathan

    Anyone interested in the origins of Christianity and Judaism should give this a read.

  15. 5 out of 5

    Jason

    This is an excellent book for grasping a basic understanding of the who, when, how, and why behind the authorship of the New Testament. Professor Mack lays out a thorough yet concise explanation of this literary feat which became the Christian bible. The book is presented in three parts. Part one explores the early origins of the both the various Jesus movements and the somewhat later Christ cults. Mack weaves together the tapestry of the early 1st century struggle between the numerous groups vy This is an excellent book for grasping a basic understanding of the who, when, how, and why behind the authorship of the New Testament. Professor Mack lays out a thorough yet concise explanation of this literary feat which became the Christian bible. The book is presented in three parts. Part one explores the early origins of the both the various Jesus movements and the somewhat later Christ cults. Mack weaves together the tapestry of the early 1st century struggle between the numerous groups vying for authenticity and having their theology become THE theology. It’s a truly fascinating account and in some ways is quite the puzzle given the lack of any literature from these first fifty years. Part two of the book gets into the meat of the New Testament and is my favorite section. Here we begin by getting more acquainted with Paul and find just how thorough and significant was his theological sculpting of the gospel story and theology as we have it today. This section of the book takes us through Paul’s authentic letters, as well as those attributed to him but not of his pen, and on through each New Testament book, examining each in its appropriate time and place, and from whom it was most likely authored based on all the existing evidence, as well as both the theological underpinnings of each writing and impact on later groups. Part three of the book moves us into the late 1st century into the 2nd and beyond, and explores the competing theologies and groups and the practice of creating scores of pseudonymous Christian writings to make each respective branch of a Jesus movement or Christ cult compelling. It examines the slow rise of orthodox doctrine in the midst of this war of words and ideas about Jesus, the need to appropriate the Jewish scriptures for Christian epic, and we find how both the need and desire for some sort of corpus of Christian—particularly authoritative apostolic—writings became a central focus in order to cement a universal, structured Christian theology, and the steps taken to finally secure that. This is one of my favorite books regarding the topics of New Testament history, authorship, and development over multiple centuries. It’s a fascinating look at the earliest beginnings of Christianity, when it was still just Jewish Jesus groups and fledgling Christ cults, to the refining of the theology in Paul’s hands, the eventual creation of gospel narratives to transmit the new Christian theologies, and up through early church history. It’s a wonderful book that I highly recommend to anyone wishing to know the history behind the New Testament and the early rise of Christian theology.

  16. 4 out of 5

    Arnaud

    A very compact book, hard to read at the beginning, but as soon as you start to see how events relate to each other and to understand the mythmaking process, everything starts to make sense. One even wonders how come so many facts are unknown to a wider audience: most letters / gospels have been written long after Jesus's death, most were attributed to one author but were actually written by various schools attributing teachings to their founder and quoting earlier texts from various communities A very compact book, hard to read at the beginning, but as soon as you start to see how events relate to each other and to understand the mythmaking process, everything starts to make sense. One even wonders how come so many facts are unknown to a wider audience: most letters / gospels have been written long after Jesus's death, most were attributed to one author but were actually written by various schools attributing teachings to their founder and quoting earlier texts from various communities of the Middle East such as the Jesus movements and the Christ cult. Moreover (but perhaps needless to say), disciples, apostles, and almost all stories involving the historical Jesus are fictional and drawn upon Jewish traditions and Greek concepts during a time of cultural diversity (with Greeks, Jews, and Romans living together and influencing one another). Finally, traumatic events such as the destruction of the temple had a large share in explaining many myths such as the Passion. I liked the conclusion that the Bible (like other sacred books) has influenced the world destiny and the mindset of the West but that it should now be open to critical thinking in order to live in peace in our multicultural, postmodern world.

  17. 4 out of 5

    Ddd S

    This study by professor of new testament Burton Mack, is a super unraveling of the layers of historical, literary, social, religious and legendary/mythical development that went into the Jesus movement and the writings from it: the new testament and other early christian writings. By laying out the many historical, religious, social and literary backgrounds most pertinent to the material, from its own time and place in the ancient Mediterranean, professor Mack shows how the jesus movement most l This study by professor of new testament Burton Mack, is a super unraveling of the layers of historical, literary, social, religious and legendary/mythical development that went into the Jesus movement and the writings from it: the new testament and other early christian writings. By laying out the many historical, religious, social and literary backgrounds most pertinent to the material, from its own time and place in the ancient Mediterranean, professor Mack shows how the jesus movement most likely started, grew and developed and became the multifaceted literary and social/religious movement that became formative christianity with its own "canon" of literature and beliefs. Any one serious about studying early christianity and the new testament, must reckon with Mack's writings.

  18. 4 out of 5

    Lisa Uotinen

    This is a well-written book. The title is a bit misleading; its focus is on the beginnings of early Christianity. The question of who wrote the New Testament is a very small part. Maybe Mack's publisher wanted a "challenging" title in order to sell it. Anyway, I am very interested in early Christianity, so I enjoyed reading it. I especially loved the introduction, in which he states that it's time for a "no-nonsense" book on the topics mentioned above. That's exactly what I was looking for, and This is a well-written book. The title is a bit misleading; its focus is on the beginnings of early Christianity. The question of who wrote the New Testament is a very small part. Maybe Mack's publisher wanted a "challenging" title in order to sell it. Anyway, I am very interested in early Christianity, so I enjoyed reading it. I especially loved the introduction, in which he states that it's time for a "no-nonsense" book on the topics mentioned above. That's exactly what I was looking for, and I found it in this book.

  19. 4 out of 5

    Mario Sergio

    An excellent book to anyone that has serious and not based on faith interest in the Bible. Yes, there is some dose of speculation but how to investigate these times without some assumptions. And Mack knows how to support his thesis with clever clues, building a consistent construction. The amazing chapters about Paul's Gospels analysis give us an impressive idea of Paul's character showing him as a compound of sincerity and charlatanism, common characteristics of a Mythmaker.

  20. 5 out of 5

    Joshua Laferriere

    Detailing the 5 different Jesus groups that descended from Jesus time and all Pre Pauline was intense in itself. Mack gives a lot of respect to the Greek tradition that preceded Christianity, which made this a perfect book following Christians as the Romans Saw Them

  21. 5 out of 5

    Lizmari

    Who wrote the New Testament? There is no straightforward answer. Aside from Paul, all of the writers in the New Testament wrote either anonymously or pseudonysmouly. But why? And how come we, as a mainstream society, have come to believe that these accounts were all eyewitness testimonies? You will find the answers to these, and other questions, in this book. In it, Burton L. Mack takes readers through the complex question of who wrote the New Testament by elucidating the social, intellectual, r Who wrote the New Testament? There is no straightforward answer. Aside from Paul, all of the writers in the New Testament wrote either anonymously or pseudonysmouly. But why? And how come we, as a mainstream society, have come to believe that these accounts were all eyewitness testimonies? You will find the answers to these, and other questions, in this book. In it, Burton L. Mack takes readers through the complex question of who wrote the New Testament by elucidating the social, intellectual, religious, and cultural landscapes that were influencing society during the 1st and 2nd centuries C.E., molding various schools of thought with respect to Jesus (whether he was seen as a sage, as a martyr, or as a Christ myth) eventually leading to complex, and often convoluted mythmaking, in order to reconcile conflicting beliefs or worldviews, and which eventually lead to the development of our current Bible, as well as a modern religion. As we progress through the gradual evolution of this Christian mythmaking, we can come to terms with the complexity of this religion, and its current state of affairs. In the end, Mack does leave us with the rhetorical challenge of how will we face our future? How will we cope with our current changing social landscape, and how will we have the courage to discuss the relevancy (or irrelevancy) of the Bible for today, in the public forum? For as he says, early Christians had reasons for imagining the world as they did... "Understanding those reasons lets us appreciate the mythmaking of those early Christians even as we recognize that their reasons for telling their stories are not good enough to be our reasons for continuing to tell the stories just as they told them." Certainly, being able to understand religion soberly, calls for a thorough understanding of that religion's development, and its mythmaking traditions. It calls for a critical approach beyond the innocent perception of seeing its scriptures as the "Word of God." This book will help the reader accomplish that. For what is the difference between what a society sees as a religion and what it sees as a mythology? We could venture to say that just the passing of a few more thousand years.

  22. 5 out of 5

    Roderick Hart

    Anyone buying this book in the expectation of finding out who actually wrote Matthew, Mark, Luke and John will be sadly disappointed since no one knows who wrote them and the names given to them in the Good Book might best be considered courtesy titles. Likewise, anyone buying this book in the expectation of discovering that the texts presently comprising the New Testament are verbatim transcripts of God’s word through carefully selected scribes will also be disappointed. No such claim is consid Anyone buying this book in the expectation of finding out who actually wrote Matthew, Mark, Luke and John will be sadly disappointed since no one knows who wrote them and the names given to them in the Good Book might best be considered courtesy titles. Likewise, anyone buying this book in the expectation of discovering that the texts presently comprising the New Testament are verbatim transcripts of God’s word through carefully selected scribes will also be disappointed. No such claim is considered and the book’s sub-title should be borne in mind – ‘The Making of the Christian Myth’. This book is not for the faint-hearted. The author is a scholar with considerable depth of knowledge and, though well written, his book is a weighty one requiring some application on the part of the reader. Some readers might feel that his inferences concerning the various Jesus communities which sprang up after his death are overly conjectural in places. He will not have got everything right, but his account of how these texts came into being is persuasive. And he also deals with how it was that certain texts were eventually selected for inclusion while others were not. I found this book most instructive.

  23. 4 out of 5

    Andy Oram

    This book certainly brings to the surface many obscure aspects of the first few hundred years of Christianity. It spends a surprisingly short amount of time on the four Gospels, but covers many important twists and turns in Christian thinking after the books of the New Testament came out. I don’t quite trust Mack’s instincts, though. I am uncomfortable with his degree of confidence. He ascribes many feelings and thought processes to Paul, for instance, that no one nowadays could possibly know ab This book certainly brings to the surface many obscure aspects of the first few hundred years of Christianity. It spends a surprisingly short amount of time on the four Gospels, but covers many important twists and turns in Christian thinking after the books of the New Testament came out. I don’t quite trust Mack’s instincts, though. I am uncomfortable with his degree of confidence. He ascribes many feelings and thought processes to Paul, for instance, that no one nowadays could possibly know about for sure. Mack’s insights are fascinating, but his comprehensive viewpoint is open to criticism. He also has a political and polemical agenda that involves puncturing what he calls “Christian mythology.”

  24. 4 out of 5

    Allen

    A fascinating and readable account of the history of the Christian scriptures and the communities that produced them. The New Testament is known to most of us as a monolith, as if the books were all written simultaneously to be read together. Historical research makes it clear that they represent a long period of struggle among different groups with radically different interpretations of the life and teachings of Jesus. Mack provides an excellent introduction to those sects and controversies in A fascinating and readable account of the history of the Christian scriptures and the communities that produced them. The New Testament is known to most of us as a monolith, as if the books were all written simultaneously to be read together. Historical research makes it clear that they represent a long period of struggle among different groups with radically different interpretations of the life and teachings of Jesus. Mack provides an excellent introduction to those sects and controversies in this book.

  25. 5 out of 5

    Badger

    The biggest problem I have with this book is the title. It is misleading. It is not about who wrote the new testament. It is NOT a good sequel to Richard E. Friedman's excellent 'Who Wrote the Bible' (which only covers the Old Testament). It is an exploration of the history of Christianity and does put the gospel writings into some context. But I was disappointed that it didn't live up to the title. I think this book is more for those looking to explore more about Christian traditions and writing The biggest problem I have with this book is the title. It is misleading. It is not about who wrote the new testament. It is NOT a good sequel to Richard E. Friedman's excellent 'Who Wrote the Bible' (which only covers the Old Testament). It is an exploration of the history of Christianity and does put the gospel writings into some context. But I was disappointed that it didn't live up to the title. I think this book is more for those looking to explore more about Christian traditions and writings and less for those looking for answers to the the question on the front cover.

  26. 4 out of 5

    Timothy Himes

    This is a challenging read, but worthwhile if you're interested in early Christian history. I was stunned to learn about how different the early Jesus movements were. I question some of the details (like the breakdown of the Q movement into three distinct phases), but I do accept the main point: that the story of Jesus grew and changed in different ways in diverse communities, even among the communities that produced the canonical gospels.

  27. 4 out of 5

    Mike

    A good history of the early church for the first 150 years

  28. 4 out of 5

    Kelly

    This is an academic book with wonderful information but it's an academic book and reads like one.

  29. 4 out of 5

    Paul Gibson

    In honor of writers unattributed.

  30. 4 out of 5

    Bronwyn

    Read aloud with Josh.

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