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NATO's Secret Armies: Operation Gladio and Terrorism in Western Europe

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This fascinating new study shows how the CIA and the British secret service, in collaboration with the military alliance NATO and European military secret services, set up a network of clandestine anti-communist armies in Western Europe after World War II. These secret soldiers were trained on remote islands in the Mediterranean and in unorthodox warfare centres in England This fascinating new study shows how the CIA and the British secret service, in collaboration with the military alliance NATO and European military secret services, set up a network of clandestine anti-communist armies in Western Europe after World War II. These secret soldiers were trained on remote islands in the Mediterranean and in unorthodox warfare centres in England and in the United States by the Green Berets and SAS Special Forces. The network was armed with explosives, machine guns and high-tech communication equipment hidden in underground bunkers and secret arms caches in forests and mountain meadows. In some countries the secret army linked up with right-wing terrorist who in a secret war engaged in political manipulation, harrassement of left wing parties, massacres, coup d'etats and torture. Codenamed 'Gladio' ('the sword'), the Italian secret army was exposed in 1990 by Italian Prime Minister Giulio Andreotti to the Italian Senate, whereupon the press spoke of "The best kept, and most damaging, political-military secret since World War II" (Observer, 18. November 1990) and observed that "The story seems straight from the pages of a political thriller." (The Times, November 19, 1990). Ever since, so-called 'stay-behind' armies of NATO have also been discovered in France, Spain, Portugal, Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxemburg, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Switzerland, Austria, Greece and Turkey. They were internationally coordinated by the Pentagon and NATO and had their last known meeting in the NATO-linked Allied Clandestine Committee (ACC) in Brussels in October 1990.


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This fascinating new study shows how the CIA and the British secret service, in collaboration with the military alliance NATO and European military secret services, set up a network of clandestine anti-communist armies in Western Europe after World War II. These secret soldiers were trained on remote islands in the Mediterranean and in unorthodox warfare centres in England This fascinating new study shows how the CIA and the British secret service, in collaboration with the military alliance NATO and European military secret services, set up a network of clandestine anti-communist armies in Western Europe after World War II. These secret soldiers were trained on remote islands in the Mediterranean and in unorthodox warfare centres in England and in the United States by the Green Berets and SAS Special Forces. The network was armed with explosives, machine guns and high-tech communication equipment hidden in underground bunkers and secret arms caches in forests and mountain meadows. In some countries the secret army linked up with right-wing terrorist who in a secret war engaged in political manipulation, harrassement of left wing parties, massacres, coup d'etats and torture. Codenamed 'Gladio' ('the sword'), the Italian secret army was exposed in 1990 by Italian Prime Minister Giulio Andreotti to the Italian Senate, whereupon the press spoke of "The best kept, and most damaging, political-military secret since World War II" (Observer, 18. November 1990) and observed that "The story seems straight from the pages of a political thriller." (The Times, November 19, 1990). Ever since, so-called 'stay-behind' armies of NATO have also been discovered in France, Spain, Portugal, Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxemburg, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Switzerland, Austria, Greece and Turkey. They were internationally coordinated by the Pentagon and NATO and had their last known meeting in the NATO-linked Allied Clandestine Committee (ACC) in Brussels in October 1990.

30 review for NATO's Secret Armies: Operation Gladio and Terrorism in Western Europe

  1. 4 out of 5

    Ron

    Just finished reading 'NATO's Secret Armies: Operation Gladio and Terrorism in Western Europe.' Authored by Dr. Daniele Ganser, a Senior Researcher at the Center for Security Studies at the Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, Switzerland, it was published in 2005. Some of the key findings of Ganser's research are these: The US CIA and British MI6, following the Second World War, set up secret right-wing organizations in all of the future NATO states, as well as the ostensibly neutral states Just finished reading 'NATO's Secret Armies: Operation Gladio and Terrorism in Western Europe.' Authored by Dr. Daniele Ganser, a Senior Researcher at the Center for Security Studies at the Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, Switzerland, it was published in 2005. Some of the key findings of Ganser's research are these: The US CIA and British MI6, following the Second World War, set up secret right-wing organizations in all of the future NATO states, as well as the ostensibly neutral states, outside the Soviet-controlled eastern Bloc. These structures varied in terms of how closely they were aligned with local governments. In fascist countries like Spain and Portugal, the organizations were closely aligned with and known to the local government's highest levels. In those countries with a more liberal democratic bent, these structures were unknown even to the highest levels of the local governments. Many of the operatives of these terrorist forces employed by the US and Great Britain were explicitly fascist. In the case of Germany, the US carried on a public de-Nazification program after the war in concert with the German government even as it recruited some of the most vicious war criminals as allies, such as Klaus Barbie (the Butcher of Lyon) and Reinhard Gehlen (a Nazi intelligence chief whose organization was turned into the West German intelligence agency which later became the Bundesnachrichtendienst, the BND), along with hundreds of others. Ostensibly established to operate as stay-behind forces in the event of a Soviet invasion of Western Europe, these forces nevertheless operated as both terrorist forces aimed at destroying leftist politics by way of direct attack or false flag terrorism blamed falsely on the left to discredit it. In numerous countries, from the 40s to the 90s, such as Belgium, Italy, France, Portugal, Spain, Greece, Turkey, these right-wing Trojan Horse forces controlled mainly by the United States, engaged in massacres, torture, multiple coups d'etat, and other violence. While it is known the countries in the Soviet Bloc enjoyed at best a limited degree of sovereignty--in fact, this was stated quite openly by Brezhnev and other Soviet leaders, the countries in Western Europe, where freedom was said to reign in contrast to the Soviet bloc, also enjoyed only a very limited sovereignty due to these secret, US-controlled organizations. In the Western case, however, this was not open, it was kept secret. John F. Kennedy's assassination followed a period of leftist political success in Italy and a secret, right-wing, CIA-controlled subversion campaign. Kennedy insisted on a compromise with the Italian left. After he was assassinated, a right-wing coup went ahead in Italy under the auspices of the CIA and its Italian operators. The purported and much-discussed dysfunction of democracy in places like Italy, Greece, and other countries was really a result of manipulation and terror at the hands of these CIA-controlled terrorist forces. In the West German state of Hesse, in the early 1950s, authorities--believing in the de-Nazification program--discovered, broke-up, and arrested the Nazis and neo-Nazis comprising the local, CIA-controlled secret army without realizing they were run by the United States. The US protected the individuals involved and the West German government was compelled to drop any further investigation. In 1955, West Germany's entry into NATO was dependent on the American condition that West Germany would refrain from pursuing right-wing extremists, a demand the West German government felt compelled to accept. Between 1982-5, a series of false-flag massacres (blamed on communists) took place at the hands of these right-wing terrorists and, in one case at least, included the participation of US Marines, in the Brabant region of Holland. 29 civilians were killed. Though the CIA possessed a list of these right-wing terrorists, and controlled them, the Dutch Prime Minister at the time, Ruud Lubbers, said it would be "pretty much lethally dangerous" for him to talk about it. The worst, but not the only, massacre carried out by these CIA-controlled terrorists occurred in Italy. On August 2, 1980 a bomb went off in the Bologna railway station killing 85 people and injuring some 200 others. It was blamed on Italian communists as part of a campaign to manipulate Italian politics and move the country's political culture to the right.

  2. 5 out of 5

    Matteo

    i am glad this book exists. it sheds light on an important part of european history (and italian history) that i did not know enough about, and about which not enough has been written

  3. 4 out of 5

    sabisteb aka callisto

    Nachdem ich Foschepoths „Überwachtes Deutschland“ gelesen habe, hatte ich schon nur noch sehr wenige Illusionen, in einer Demokratie zu leben. Dieses Buch jedoch, zerreißt auch noch den letzten dünnen Schleier der Illusion, den der Westen als seine ach so grandiosen Ideale rühmt. Wenn man nach Foschepoths Buch noch die Hoffnung hatte, dass man an diesem System irgendwas retten oder verbessern könnte, macht einem diese Buch klar, dass da nicht mehr zu retten ist, sondern, dass diese Strukturen mit Nachdem ich Foschepoths „Überwachtes Deutschland“ gelesen habe, hatte ich schon nur noch sehr wenige Illusionen, in einer Demokratie zu leben. Dieses Buch jedoch, zerreißt auch noch den letzten dünnen Schleier der Illusion, den der Westen als seine ach so grandiosen Ideale rühmt. Wenn man nach Foschepoths Buch noch die Hoffnung hatte, dass man an diesem System irgendwas retten oder verbessern könnte, macht einem diese Buch klar, dass da nicht mehr zu retten ist, sondern, dass diese Strukturen mit Stumpf und Stiel eliminiert werden müssen und etwas vollkommen Neues her muss. Dafür muss aber erst das amerikanische Imperium entmachtet werden. Aber beginnen wir am Anfang. Jeder hat schon mal irgendwie von Gladio (dem italienischen Zweig der stay-behind Armeen) gehört, eine Geheime Armee im Auftrag der Nato. Die eigentliche Idee, geboren aus den Erfahrungen des zweiten Weltkrieges war gar nicht so schlecht. Diese geheimen Armee, auch stay-behind genannt, sollten im Falle einer Invasion, den Kontakt zur Exilregierung halten und den Widerstand im Land organisieren. Das an sich ist nicht verwerflich und dass so eine Armee geheim gehalten werden muss, ist verständlich. Was jedoch CIA, MI6 und die NATO letztendlich aus diesem eigentlich sinnvollen Projekt gemacht haben, ist so widerwärtig, dass man sich fragt, warum die Europäischen Regierungen überhaupt noch mit den USA und UK zusammenarbeiten, oder besser, nach diesem Buch fragt man es sich nicht mehr. Wenn man dieses Buch liest, erkennt man, was da gerade in der Ukraine passiert, denn es ist schon mehrfach passiert, und die NATO verwendet immer noch die alten Methoden der 60er Jahre und irgendwie fallen die Leute doch immer noch darauf hinein. Was ist so verwerflich an dem, was die NATO mit den Geheimarmeen veranstaltet hat? Ich denke, die Beispiele sprechen für sich selbst: • Stay-behind Strukturen waren eine Grundvoraussetzung zum Beitritt zur NATO. • Stay-behind Mitglieder wurden nur aus der rechten Szene und aus ultrakonservativen Kreisen rekrutiert, also Mitglieder der SS (Klaus Barbie, Gehlen) und GESATPO. In Italien arbeiteten (und arbeiten) mit der Mafia zusammen und rekrutierte gesuchte Terroristen (die auch in den verschiedenen Ländern untereinander weitergereicht wurden). • Stay-behind Armeen verübten Terroranschläge gegen die eigene Bevölkerung und schoben es den unbequemen Linken, Sozialisten und Kommunisten in die Schuhe, um damit die Bevölkerung dazu zu bringen, mehr Sicherheit zu fordern, sogenannte False Flagg Anschläge. (Brabant- Anschläge in Beligien, Oktoberfestattentat, …) • Stay behind Armeen putschten mehrfach gegen kommunistische, Linke, demokratisch gewählte Regierungen. Das war auch ihre Hauptaufgabe, mit ihrer Hilfe entfernt die CIA unbequeme Regierungen und installiert anschließend NATO Marionetten: 1967 in Griechenland, 1980 in der Türkei, 1961 in Frankreich (gescheitert – Warum wohl haben die Franzosen die NATO aus ihrem Land rausgeschmissen?!) • Die italienische Gladio hatte die Aufgabe „Italiens Ausrichtung am Westblock unter allen Umständen zu garantieren, selbst wenn die Wähler eine andere Einstellung zeigen.“ (S. 62) – Wer da noch an Wahlen und Demokratie glaubt, ist naiv und beratungsresistent. • In Frankreich wurde diese Armee von der Industrie gesponsert (Peugot z. Bsp), damit diese die Gewerkschaften, Sozialisten und Kommunisten schwächen. (S. 147) – Ich gehe mal davon aus, daran hat sich bis heute nichts geändert, nur dass nun wohl auch die Banken massiv sponsern würde ich vermuten. • Laut FM 30-31 Handbuch der CIA ist „in Friedenszeiten Gewaltakte durchzuführen und diesen dann den Kommunisten anzulasten, um somit ein Klima der Furcht und der Wachsamkeit zu erzeigen (S. 361) “ Eine Standartvorgehensweise. - 9/11? Der Absturz der polnischen Regierung vor ein paar Jahren (die wollten eine Mittelmacht etablieren, die sich weder an Ost noch an West bindet). Schlussfolgerungen: • Kein einziger europäischer Staat kontrolliert seine eigenen Geheimdienste. Die sind alle in der Hand der CIA und des MI6 bzw. Außenstellen dieser Organisationen. Egal, was Foschepoth auch über Verträge schreiben mag, die Ausrüstung stammt seit dem zweiten Weltkrieg von der CIA und NSA, die Leute werden und wurden dort ausgebildet und die Geheimdienste kooperieren länderübergreifend miteinander als eine einzige Struktur, egal wer gerade regiert. Der italienische Geheimdienst wird durch ein geheimes Protokoll reguliert, das Italien von den USA aufgezwungen wurde (S. 116) Es stellt sich nun nur noch die Frage, wer steuert die CIA, die die anderen Geheimdienste wie Marionetten tanzen lässt? Die Banken? Die amerikanischen Oligarchen? • Da braucht man sich nicht mehr lange fragen, warum unsere SPD nicht mit den LINKEN zusammenarbeitet, obwohl die letzten Wahlen eine linke Mehrheit ergeben haben… Wer glaubt, dass diese Strukturen nicht mehr existieren, der irrt. Wenn Deutschland eine linke Regierung bekäme, hätten wir hier sehr bald einen Putsch durch diese CIA Truppen, da hat die SPD keinen Lust drauf, und dass die Politiker der Linken auch heute noch vom Verfassungsschutz beobachtet werden ist auch bekannt. • Während die Sowjetunion ihre Archive öffnete, bleiben jene der Amerikaner verschlossen (S. 140). Wem sollten wir da wohl eher trauen? Den USA sicherlich nicht. • „Es ist unsere Überzeugung, dass die erste Phase politischer Aktivität Bedingungen generieren muss, welche die Schaffung von Chaos in allen Strukturen des Regimes ermöglichen.“ (S. 193) – Klingt schwer nach Ukraine 2014. • Mit ein paar ideologischen Zaubertricks bezeichnete Truman das korrupte und rechtslastige Regime in Athen plötzlich als demokratisch und tat deren Opposition als Terroristen ab( S. 333). Klingt erneut nach Ukraine 2014. Fazit: „Die Fakten über Gladio zeigen, dass die Legislative nicht in der Lage war, die versteckten Zweige der Exekutive zu kontrollieren, und es in den Demokratien auf beiden Seiten des Atlantiks keine parlamentarische Kontrolle der Geheimdienste gibt oder, wenn es sie gibt, sie nicht funktionieren. Schon lange ist bekannt, dass totalitäre Staaten eine ganze Reihe von Geheimarmeen unterhielten. Doch sollte ersthafte Fehlfunktionen auch in zahlreichen Demokratien zu entdecken ist zumindest überraschend.“(S. 380) Hier irrt sich der Autor meiner Meinung nach. Im Westen hat es noch nie eine Demokratie gegeben. Wenn nur totalitäre Regime diese Mittel verwenden, muss man halt einsehen, dass man auch in einem totalitären Regim lebt und eben nicht in einer Demokratie oder nur in einer Scheindemokratie Marke DDR. Wenn es doch einmal zu demokratischen Wahlergebnissen kam, wurden diese gewählten Regierungen von den Geheimarmeen entfernt und durch Marionettenregime ersetzt. Der Osten und der Westen unterscheiden sich nur in einem Punkt, die im Osten wussten, dass es eine Farce ist, die im Westen glaubten an die Farce und waren und sind somit dümmer und naiver als der von ihnen bekämpfte Osten. Aber auch im Westen wachen die Menschen langsam auf und erkennen, dass alles, was sie bisher glaubten, eine Lüge ist. Man kann an diesem Buch natürlich kritisieren, dass der Autor nicht auf Originalunterlagen zurückgreifen konnte, ABER Geheimdienste operieren nicht im Luftleeren Raum. Sie hinterlassen Spuren in der Realität wie Trevor Paglen auf der 30c3 in Six Landscapes sehr schön zeigte. Was ich aus diesem Buch schließe? Wählen bringt nichts. Entweder man wählt brav seine Unterdrücker oder die gewählte Regierung wird ausgetauscht. Bisher wurde in Deutschland durch die Massenmedien verhindert, dass die CIA durchgreifen musste und die Illusion von Freiheit zerstört wurde. Warum die Politiker sich nicht währen und Mitspielen? Warum sie alle Rückratlose Wendehälse sind? Das ist Teil des Systems. Wählen bringt nichts. Auch der Autor konnte nicht belegen, wer wirklich hinter all diesen Geheimarmeen steckt. Wer steuert die CIA? Wer bestimmt den Kurs, den dem der westliche Block zu folgen hat? DAS wäre meiner Meinung nach, eine sehr wichtige Frage und die Antwort ein Teil der Lösung des Problems. Was ich vermisse, ist ein Schaltbild der Verstrickungen, das das Problem visualisiert.

  4. 5 out of 5

    Luka Novak

    While the topic is very interesting and author seemed to do decent ammount of research the main flaw of the book is that it doesn't rely on primary sources. Instead it uses secondary sources like testemonies of people involved and various reports. While author freely admits this and explains primary sources were not available this severly decreases the extent of what book can actually uncover, since secondary sources are by nature less reliable and less that full. Good attempt but far short of wh While the topic is very interesting and author seemed to do decent ammount of research the main flaw of the book is that it doesn't rely on primary sources. Instead it uses secondary sources like testemonies of people involved and various reports. While author freely admits this and explains primary sources were not available this severly decreases the extent of what book can actually uncover, since secondary sources are by nature less reliable and less that full. Good attempt but far short of what it could be.

  5. 5 out of 5

    Derek

    It’s great to have compiled in one spot a brief overview of Gladio operations in each NATO member state (less the US & UK themselves) along with sources, but I couldn’t help but walk away from this a little disappointed in the end. First, it should be mentioned that the editing and English translation could have used some more work. There were consistently major misspellings, punctuation errors and ungrammatical sentences, not that this would reflect on Ganser himself obviously. However, in his It’s great to have compiled in one spot a brief overview of Gladio operations in each NATO member state (less the US & UK themselves) along with sources, but I couldn’t help but walk away from this a little disappointed in the end. First, it should be mentioned that the editing and English translation could have used some more work. There were consistently major misspellings, punctuation errors and ungrammatical sentences, not that this would reflect on Ganser himself obviously. However, in his foreword Ganser mentions how the version we read today was edited down from a draft measuring over a thousand pages; one can’t help but wonder if that would’ve been a better or worse document. In any case, there are a few particular elements not allowed an entirely thorough treatment in the text. Besides Ganser’s explanation of the motivations behind Pan-Turkist ideology, he discusses very little the racialism and other components motivating the Gladio soldiers themselves. This information would have been good to present not only for a fuller picture of the perpetrators of Gladio’s crimes but to shine further light on the undiscovered links in the network. Ganser often contents himself to admitting the unanswerability of a question given a lack of unclassified documentation rather than offering his own theories as well. I found it interesting that he relies so heavily on Anglophone authors such as Christopher Simpson and Martin Lee doing similar work given the abundance of literature to be found were he to put aside his anti-Soviet convictions. In the conclusion he goes so far as to state that the Gladio network’s actions were justifiable in light of a rational fear of Soviet invasion, something that verges on absurdity as the network progressed past the 1960s. While Ganser puts a lot of pieces in one place that were undoubtedly actually coordinated as such at the time and makes a legitimate attempt at describing the stay-behind’s structure, there are certainly better individual books out there focusing on the subject matter of CIA operations in Europe.

  6. 5 out of 5

    S.H. Villa

    It is unusual for a book to be both dull and horrifying, but it is excused its dullness by being the only academic text on the NATO Gladio operations after WWII in Western Europe. The horrifying part is harder to excuse. It became known when the then Italian prime minister Andreotti confirmed the existence of Operation Gladio in the Italian parliament. This book is based on the report which followed in the early 1990s. The CIA and British Intelligence were particularly keen to prevent any of the It is unusual for a book to be both dull and horrifying, but it is excused its dullness by being the only academic text on the NATO Gladio operations after WWII in Western Europe. The horrifying part is harder to excuse. It became known when the then Italian prime minister Andreotti confirmed the existence of Operation Gladio in the Italian parliament. This book is based on the report which followed in the early 1990s. The CIA and British Intelligence were particularly keen to prevent any of the numerous communist parties from getting a grip in Western Europe. To this end, they took into the fold a number of prominent Nazis, some of whom they saved from prosecution, other rightwingers including members of the Mafia. They promoted certain rightwing political parties, such as the Christian Democrats in Italy which the Americans basically financed, and also set up secret armies. Weapons were supplied and held in large caches ready for any communist threat. And then when they got bored with waiting for communists to make a move, they set up false flag operations, especially in Italy. Bombs in banks, train stations and public places killed hundreds in total. They would then go out and arrest anarchists or communists who in some cases 'committed suicide' while in detention. In Belgium they had a gang with machine guns who went around killing people in supermarkets. All VERY ugly. And sad to think that humans can do these things to one another all to keep certain powerful people powerful. You can be assured that those who laid the explosives, fired into lines of women and children were not the ones who got the big bite of the apple. From here, go on to read about what has become known as Gladio B in Sibel Edmonds book The Lone Gladio. 9/11 yet another false flag operation allowed the US to justify invasions in the Middle East.

  7. 4 out of 5

    Ignat

    Realpolitik. CIA and MI6 created and sponsored terrorists states around the world. Secret NATO protocols. Must read!

  8. 5 out of 5

    Kersplebedeb

    Would have been a four-star book had the translation not been so crappy - truly unfortunate.

  9. 4 out of 5

    Rutger

    Disconcerting Cold War story. I learned about this book a few years ago, after I did some googling on Gladio, but put it aside after I checked the bio and bibliography of the writer, Daniele Ganser. Ganser turned out to be a self-styled “Friedesforscher” (peace researcher) who veers into conspiracy theory stuff, like 9/11 being an inside and stuff like that. However, recently I (again) stumbled upon operation Gladio and checked the background literature, and (again) I had to conclude this book “N Disconcerting Cold War story. I learned about this book a few years ago, after I did some googling on Gladio, but put it aside after I checked the bio and bibliography of the writer, Daniele Ganser. Ganser turned out to be a self-styled “Friedesforscher” (peace researcher) who veers into conspiracy theory stuff, like 9/11 being an inside and stuff like that. However, recently I (again) stumbled upon operation Gladio and checked the background literature, and (again) I had to conclude this book “NATO’s secret armies” is the best choice to read on the topic. Ganser did not disappoint, not at all. Operation “Gladio” (Italian for sword) was a clandestine CIA/MI6 Cold-War program to form resistance movements in Western Europe in case of a sudden Soviet invasion – mostly in NATO member states, though not only (Switzerland). The fear of Soviet communism was immense after WWII and understandable looking at Eastern Europe at the time. The Americans and Brits decided communism shouldn't conquer one inch further into the West, and deservedly so. During the Cold War, the US took on a sole leadership role and the Brits became more of a junior partner in NATO and Gladio. The best way to describe Gladio is to divide it into; good, bad and ugly. First, the good part; a hard lesson of WWII was that it’s very hard to organize, train and operate a resistance movement *after* an invasion. Ideally, you want to connect loyal, smart, strong and patriotic people before such a thing happens. Gladio primarily focused on what was considered the enemy within: the communist parties in Western Europe -- though popular among the public, communists were considered by the CIA to be likely candidates for a post-invasion Soviet puppet government. Thus, it followed that communists needed to be discredited as much as possible. Onwards, to the bad part. Ideals tend to be noble, but you make your hands dirty during implementation. So it was with Gladio. After the decision was made to organize underground resistance movements, stay-behinds as they were called, the CIA had to look for recruits among the public. The logic for recruitment was very cynical: if the communists invade, who will resist them the most? Answer: the far-right, i.e. ultranationalists, neo-nazis, paramilitaries and the like. These people could be relied upon to fight communists until the death, they would never accept them. Finally, the ugly. These secret armies were not dormant, they were active; and the bigger the communist party (or the more opposed to American FP) was in a NATO country, the more Gladio action they had. Far-right radicals got the go-ahead (and immunity from prosecution) to commit “false flag” terror attacks against civilian targets. These attacks served two functions; 1) It was assumed that the populations had to be scared through a “policy of tension” and nothing scares people more into submission than violence and terrorism and 2) authorities would blame the communists for the false flag in order to discredit them. To me, this all sounded incredible, until I looked into it – and it was all likely to be true. The bombing of the Bologna train station, the Oktoberfest bombing and the Brabant killings all had clear links to Gladio and served a political purpose. For example, the Brabant killers became active in Belgium during a time in which Belgium was considered to be the weakest NATO member; the public didn’t want nuclear weapons on its soil, and thus had to be subdued some way – then the BrabantKillers (Bende van Nijvel) started raising hell and the rest is history... The Italian terrorist Vincenzo Vinciguerra, responsible for the Bologna train station bombing, publicly stated he committed the atrocity for political purposes (to manipulate public opinion into calls for an authoritarian state) and how he received approval from people in high places. He even resented being called "neofascist", because he saw himself as an instrument of the state! I give the book 4 stars, but it’s 5 stars for the content and 3 for the writing and structure. I think Ganser could have done more with the story, but, then again, why has nobody else looked into this? At least, Ganser managed to collect all the relevant information and show how similar the separate national Gladio networks were. Highly recommended.

  10. 5 out of 5

    Linus

    I grunden en fantastisk historia men boken är alltför torr och träig för att jag ska orka ta till mig berättelsen. Men för den som har mer tålamod än jag så är det säkerligen en fantastisk sammanställning av Natos Stay Behind i Europa.

  11. 5 out of 5

    Sam

    Stunning.

  12. 5 out of 5

    Ave Mets

    Reading this must be complemented with reading its criticisms.

  13. 4 out of 5

    Carlos

    El lado oscuro del terrorismo en Europa y la muestra de cómo en occidente no somos santos.

  14. 4 out of 5

    Vítor

    In a nutshell, it is a book with much truthful and important information (very little from primary sources), mixed together with many "maybes" of hearsay and speculation, and some critical research failures (it says for one that the Portuguese New State dictatorship was overthrown in May 1st, 1974, when any one with the middle school level knowledge would know it happened on April 25th, and this is quite an omen to take the book with some grains of salt). The book is harmed by a logic that the C In a nutshell, it is a book with much truthful and important information (very little from primary sources), mixed together with many "maybes" of hearsay and speculation, and some critical research failures (it says for one that the Portuguese New State dictatorship was overthrown in May 1st, 1974, when any one with the middle school level knowledge would know it happened on April 25th, and this is quite an omen to take the book with some grains of salt). The book is harmed by a logic that the Cold War was just an antileftist paranoia against a left that was not trying to do anything to fight an ideological/political combat and that any apparent radical left action was either a false flag by the far-right, or far left groups acting manipulated by far-rightists that convinced them that they were on the same side (both things happened, but again, to what extent?, and clearly they didn't always). It suffers from a lot of conspiracy theory logic that all events happen because there is some group in the shadows pulling all the strings, and nothing can happen by mistake, coincidence, rush or existence of multitudes of different groups all trying to use each other. Some quoted authors have admited that the book does misquote them or attributes them intentions they didn't have (even quoted authors that have praised the book as a whole). No amount of facts can change these basic flaws of book intent. Books like this need an alternate response that is willing to see the Cold War as the fight of equal blocs and factions that it was, not falling into hindsight falacy of assuming that the US and the right always took the lead because we now know they won. Your research is cornbread, your argument is invalid.

  15. 5 out of 5

    Doug

    Though written in dull, academic style, this story exploded on the scene in the early 1990s, with various European governments confirming it. It's the story of secret right-wing/Nazi armies setup by the U.S. and NATO at the start of the Cold War to serve as behind-the-lines shock troops in the event of a Soviet invasion. Since that never occurred, these secret armies ended up taking part in numerous false-flag terrorist operations they blamed on the left. It's a key text linking the right and fa Though written in dull, academic style, this story exploded on the scene in the early 1990s, with various European governments confirming it. It's the story of secret right-wing/Nazi armies setup by the U.S. and NATO at the start of the Cold War to serve as behind-the-lines shock troops in the event of a Soviet invasion. Since that never occurred, these secret armies ended up taking part in numerous false-flag terrorist operations they blamed on the left. It's a key text linking the right and false terrorism as policy.

  16. 5 out of 5

    Yves Antigny

    ebook

  17. 4 out of 5

    Anthony James

    When you don't know what to say sometimes it is better not to say anything at all.

  18. 5 out of 5

    Nick

  19. 5 out of 5

    Murat

  20. 4 out of 5

    Glenn Muise

  21. 4 out of 5

    Vincent Carl

  22. 4 out of 5

    Molly

  23. 5 out of 5

    Grhope90

  24. 5 out of 5

    Walter

  25. 4 out of 5

    Juhoahava

  26. 5 out of 5

    Srecko

  27. 5 out of 5

    VacuumCleaner

  28. 4 out of 5

    Pengovsky

  29. 4 out of 5

    Youkho

  30. 4 out of 5

    Kıvanç

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